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Structural Design for Fire Safety



Structural Design for Fire Safety

Andrew H. Buchanan

ISBN: 978-0-471-89060-7 May 2001 448 Pages


Presenting a comprehensive overview of the fire resistance ofbuilding structures, this key text brings together a large volumeof material from many sources on this increasingly important topic.Starting with the fundamentals of fires and fire safety, the bookgives an introduction to real fire exposure and the response ofstructures to such fires, outlining the important contribution ofstructural fire resistance to overall fire safety. Methods ofcalculating fire severity and achieving fire resistance aredescribed, including fire performance of the main structuralmaterials including structural steel, reinforced concrete andtimber construction. Particularly valuable elements of the book areits design sections (incorporating international methods), wherethe earlier material is synthesised and recommendations are madefor rational design of building structures exposed to fires.

Structural Design for Fire Safety provides expert guidance on:

? Interpreting code requirements for fire safety
? Understanding the concepts of fire severity and fire resistance
? Estimating time-temperature curves for fully developedcompartment fires
? Understanding the behaviour of structural elements and buildingsexposed to fires
? Designing steel, concrete and timber structures to resist fireexposure
? Assessing the fire performance of existing structures

In addition, the book includes valuable calculations and workedexamples, unavailable elsewhere.

This is an essential book for structural engineers who wish toimprove their understanding of buildings exposed to severe fires.It is also an ideal textbook for introductory courses in firesafety in a civil or structural engineering degree programme, andis vital reading for final year students in fire protection andfire safety engineering. Furthermore, it successfully bridges theinformation gap between fire safety engineers, structural engineersand building inspectors, and will be of significant interest toarchitects, code officials, building designers and firefighters.



Fire Safety in Buildings


FireSafety Objectives

Process of Fire Development

Conceptual Framework for Fire Safety

Fire Resistance

Controlling Fire Spread

Building Construction for Fire Safety

Fire and Heat




Fire Initiation

Burning Objects

t-squared Fires

Pre-flashover Design Fires

Heat Transfer

Room Fires


Pre-flashover fires


Post-flashover Fires

Design Fires

Other Factors

Fire Severity


Fire Severity and Fire Resistance

Fire Severity

Standard Fire

Equivalent Fire Severity

Fire Resistance


Fire Resistance

Assessing Fire Resistance

Fire-resistance Tests

Approved Fire-resistance Ratings

Fire Resistance by Calculation

Fire Resistance of Assemblies

Design of Structures Exposed to Fire


Structural Design at Normal Temperatures

Structural Design in Fire Conditions

Material Properties in Fire

Design of Individual Members Exposed to Fire

Design of Structural Assemblies Exposed to Fire

Steel Structures


Behaviour of Steel Structures in Fire

Fire-resistance Ratings

Steel Temperatures

Protection Systems

Mechanical Properties of Steel at Elevated Temperature

Design of Steel Members Exposed to Fire

Design of Steel Buildings Exposed to Fire

Concrete Structures


Behaviour of Concrete Structures in Fire

Fire-resistance Ratings

Concrete and Reinforcing Temperatures

Mechanical Properties of Concrete at Elevated Temperatures

Design of Concrete Members Exposed to Fire

Composite Steel-Concrete Construction Exposed to Fire

Timber Structures


Description of Timber Construction

Fire-resistance Ratings

Wood Temperatures

Mechanical Properties of Wood

Design Concepts for Heavy Timber Exposed to Fire

Design of Heavy Timber Members Exposed to Fire

Behaviour of Timber Connections in Fire

Light Frame Construction



Fire Behaviours

Fire-resistance Ratings

Properties of Gypsum Plaster Board

Temperatures Within Light Frame Assemblies

Structural Behaviour

Design of Light Frame Structures in Fire

Construction Details

Lightweight Sandwich Panels

Design Recommendations


Summary of Main Points

Summary for Main Materials

Thermal Analysis


Appendix A Units and conversion factors

Appendix B Fire load energy densities

Appendix C Section property tables for steel beams

Appendix D Generic fire-resistance ratings for reinforcedconcrete


  • International coverage (not country specific)
  • Emphasis on design, not analysis
  • Covers all major materials (steel, concrete, timber)
  • Structural fire protection is described within the context of overall fire safety
  • Includes valuable worked examples unavailable elsewhere