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Structural Design of Buildings

Structural Design of Buildings

Paul Smith

ISBN: 978-1-118-86550-7

Feb 2016

344 pages

$64.99

Description

Covering common problems, likely failures and their remedies, this is an essential on-site guide to the behaviour
of a building’s structure. Presented in a clear structure and user-friendly style, the book goes through all the structural aspects of a building and assesses the importance of the different components. It explains the structural behaviour of buildings, giving some of the basics of structures together with plenty of real-life examples and guidance.



 

Acknowledgements xiii

About the Author xv

Introduction xvii

Chapter 1 The History of Buildings 1

The development of building knowledge 1

Styles of architecture and building construction 2

Chapter 2 Loadings and Aspects of Structural Theory Relating to Buildings 19

Weight and mass 19

Permanent actions or dead loads 19

Variable actions or imposed loads 20

Wind load 20

Accidental actions 26

Seismic action 26

BS EN 1991: Actions on structures EC1 26

Combinations of load and factors of safety 26

Stress 27

Strain 27

Young’s modulus or modulus of elasticity 27

Plastic deformation 27

Buckling 29

Local buckling 29

Second moment of area 29

Centre of gravity 30

Lateral torsional buckling 30

Neutral axis 30

Bending force 30

Shear force and bending moment 31

Deflection 31

Static equilibrium 31

Internal forces 32

Derivation of shear force 35

Derivation of bending moment 35

Derivation of deflection 36

Basic theory of bending 37

Moment of resistance 39

Combined bending and direct stress 40

External and internal statically determinate structures 40

Connections and restraints 41

Stiffness 44

Buildings and load paths 45

Chapter 3 The Construction of Buildings 49

Breathable and non-breathable construction 49

Timber frame 51

Stone 64

Modern timber frame construction 81

Solid brick construction 81

Cavity construction 82

Steel construction 84

Commercial steel portal frames 87

Precast concrete construction 88

Chapter 4 Steel 93

Steel properties 93

Lateral torsional buckling 93

The effect of end restraints on a beam 93

Bending failure 101

Local buckling 101

Shear failure 102

Web bearing and buckling 102

Deflection 102

Fire and corrosion 102

Chapter 5 Concrete 105

The history of cement and concrete 105

Cement 105

Water and workability – now known as consistence 106

Failure of concrete 107

Strength of concrete 109

Concrete mix designs 109

Creep 111

Environment 111

Air-entrained concrete 111

Accelerators and retarders 112

Plasticizers 112

Fly ash, silica flume and ground granulated blast furnace slag 112

Anti-corrosion 112

Chapter 6 Timber 113

Grading of timber 113

Moisture 113

Air-dried timber 119

Kiln-dried timber 119

Dimensions of timber 120

Shear 120

Bending 120

Deflection 121

Chapter 7 Foundations 123

Purpose of foundations 123

The history of foundations 123

Building Regulation requirements 124

Stepped foundation 125

Types of foundation 126

Piles 132

Bearing pressure 134

Bearing capacity 134

Eccentric loading on foundations 137

Climatic and moisture changes 138

Physical damage by trees 139

Underpinning 139

Chapter 8 Walls 141

The strength of walls 141

Masonry unit 141

Frost resistance and soluble salts 142

Concrete blocks 143

Mortar 143

Lime putty (non-hydraulic lime) 144

Hydraulic lime 144

Important rules in the use of lime mortars 144

Cement 145

Characteristic strength of masonry 145

Slenderness ratio 146

Flexural stiffness and the second moment of area 147

Euler load 148

Leaning walls and stability 153

Movement joints 153

Changes due to temperature changes 154

Changes due to moisture changes 154

Traditional design of walls 155

Middle-third rule 156

Timber frame walls and raking 157

Chapter 9 Floors 161

The history of floors 161

Modern solid floors 162

Suspended floors and engineered floor joists 163

Holes and notches in floor joists 163

Limecrete 168

The use of plaster and lime ash floors 168

Beam and block suspended floors and hollow core floors 171

Damp 171

Salts 172

Sulphate attack 172

Ceilings 173

Chapter 10 Roofs 175

Trussed and cut roofs 175

Modern truss roofs 175

Cut roofs 177

Roof components 179

Wind bracing 188

Roof spread 189

Overloading of roof members 191

Alterations to roof structures 192

Traditional timber frame building trusses 192

Modern rafter design 193

Flat roof construction 195

Chapter 11 Arches and Columns 197

The history of arches 197

Inversion theory 197

Line of thrust 199

Formation of hinges 201

Visible line of thrust 201

Height and thickness of an arch 203

Gothic arch 203

Domes 203

Columns 204

Chapter 12 Geology 209

The importance of understanding geology 209

Sinkholes 209

Landslips 213

Mining 216

Loess 220

Quick sand 220

Seismic activity 220

Drainage and the water table 220

Chapter 13 Site Investigation 223

Site investigation 223

Boreholes 223

Trenches 223

Geophysics 223

Gravity surveys 223

Magnetic surveys 224

Electromagnetic surveys 224

Electrical surveys 224

Ground-penetrating radar 224

Seismic reflection surveys 224

Seismic refraction 224

Made-up ground or fill 225

Walkover 225

Japanese knotweed 227

Buddleia 227

Desk study 227

Radon 228

Chapter 14 Stability of Buildings 229

Disproportionate collapse 229

Class 1 230

Class 2A 230

Class 2B 230

Class 3 231

Chapter 15 Dimensions of Buildings 233

Building Regulations Part A 233

Slenderness ratio 234

Buttresses and end restraints 245

Lateral restraint of walls and roofs 245

Chapter 16 Basements and Retaining Structures 247

Structural considerations 247

Safety factors 248

Theory behind the design 248

Loading 248

Angle of shearing resistance 250

Effects of water 251

Proportions of walls 251

Design example 252

Specialist advice 260

Types of wall 278

Basements 281

Chapter 17 Structural Alterations 283

Preliminary considerations 283

Removal of walls 283

Alterations to timbers and trusses 285

Alterations to roof structures for dormers 287

Loft conversions 288

Flitch beams 289

Lintels and openings 293

Chapter 18 Structural Defects in Buildings 295

Structural defects 295

Compression 295

Tension 295

Shear 295

Random cracking 295

Location of cracking 296

Roof spread 296

Settlement 296

Shrinkage due to thermal and moisture movements 297

Movement of brickwork along the damp-proof course 298

Subsidence 298

Chemical reactions 301

High alumina cement (HAC) 302

Wall tie failure 302

Damp 303

Overloading 303

Professional advice 305

Chapter 19 The Ancient Use of Sign and Geometry in the Setting Out of Buildings 307

Daisy wheel 307

The golden number or golden mean 307

Pythagoras 309

Masonic markings 309

Ordnance datum bench marks 310

References 313

Index 315