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Subsurface Sensing



Subsurface Sensing

Ahmet S. Turk, Koksal A. Hocaoglu, Alexey A. Vertiy

ISBN: 978-0-470-60856-2 July 2011 600 Pages

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This book provides readers with a solid understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the techniques used for buried object detection. Presenting theory along with applications and the existing technology, it covers the most recent developments in hardware and software technologies of sensor systems with a focus on primary sensors such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and auxiliary sensors such as Nuclear Quadruple Resonance (NQR). It is essential reading for students, practitioners, specialists, and academicians involved in the design and implementation of buried object detection sensors.
Contributors xiii

Preface xvii

1 Introduction 1

Relevant Resources 4

References 4

2 Sensor Types 7

2.1 Introduction 7
A. S. Turk

2.2 Ground-Penetrating Radar 8
A. S. Turk

2.3 Electromagnetic Induction Detector 19
A. S. Turk

2.4 Microwave Tomography Method 23
A. A. Vertiy

2.5 Acoustic and Seismic Sensor 29
A. K. Hocaoglu

2.6 Optical Detectors (Infrared and Hyperspectral) 36
A. K. Hocaoglu

2.7 Biochemical Sensors 37
M. Harbeck and Z. Z. Ozturk

2.8 Nuclear Sensors 44
A. N. Bilge

References 48

3 Ground-Penetrating Radar 55

3.1 Introduction 55
A. S. Turk

3.2 GPR System Design 57
A. S. Turk

3.3 GPR Hardware 64
A. S. Turk, P. van Genderen, A. G. Yarovoy, and I. Nicolaescu

3.4 GPR Antennas 83
A. S. Turk

3.5 Signal-Processing Techniques 96
A. K. Hocaoglu

3.6 Imaging Algorithms 108
C. Ozdemir

3.7 Numerical Modeling of GPR 122
S. Aksoy, E. Basaran, and E. Ozturk

3.8 Detection and Classification Algorithms 146
A. K. Hocaoglu

References 162

4 Electromagnetic Induction 175
H. Ewald

4.1 Introduction to Metal Detectors 175

4.2 Inductive Metal Detectors: Types of Probes, Excitation, and Coil Arrangements 179

4.3 Influence of the Soil Properties 196

4.4 Modeling Inductive Metal Detectors 202

4.5 Advanced Signal-Processing and Pattern Recognition Systems for Metal Detection 211

4.6 Conclusions 223

References 224

5 Microwave Tomography 227

5.1 Overview 227
A. A. Vertiy

5.2 Electromagnetic Tomography 228
F. Soldovieri and L. Crocco

5.3 Multifrequency Tomographic Method 255
A. A. Vertiy and S. Gavrilov

5.4 Diffraction Multiview Tomographic Method in the Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Bands 310
A. O. Salman, A. A. Vertiy, and S. Gavrilov

5.5 Nonlinear Inversion Algorithms 365
L. Crocco and F. Soldovieri

References 377

6 Acoustic and Seismic Sensors 387
H. Asanuma

6.1 Overview 387

6.2 Operating Principles and Sensor Physics 389

6.3 Sensor Installation 400

6.4 Multicomponent Techniques 403

6.5 Limitations 408

6.6 Future Prospects 409

References 410

7 Auxiliary Sensors 413

7.1 Overview 413
A. N. Bilge

7.2 Biological and Chemical Methods of Explosive Detection 414
M. Harbeck and Z. Z. Ozturk

7.3 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance 429
G. V. Mozzhukhin and B. Z. Rameev

7.4 X-ray, Gamma-ray, and Neutron Techniques 451
A. N. Bilge

7.5 Electric Impedance Tomography 460
A. S. Turk

7.6 Infrared and Hyperspectral Systems 465
J. E. McFee and S. Achal

References 484

8 Multisensor Fusion 501
A. K. Hocaoglu

8.1 Preview 501

8.2 Data Association 503

8.3 Fusion Architectures 503

8.4 Probabilistic Sensor Fusion 505

8.5 Fuzzy Integrals for Information Fusion 513

8.6 Artificial Neural Networks 517

8.7 Summary 523

References 523

9 Geophysical Applications 525

9.1 Introduction 525
E. C. Slob

9.2 Electromagnetic Properties of Soils 526
E. C. Slob, S. Lambot, and E. Pettinelli

9.3 Hydrogeophysics 567
S. Lambot, E. Pettinelli, S. S. Hubbard, E. C. Slob, E. Bloem, and V. E. A. Post

9.4 Contaminant Remediation 600
S. S. Hubbard

9.5 Agricultural Geophysics 618
B. Allred, J. Butnor, D. L. Corwin, R. Eigenberg, H. Farahani, K. H. Johnsen, S. Lambot, D. McInnis, E. Pettinelli, L. Samuelson, and B. Woodbury

9.6 Archaeology and Cultural Heritage 644
E. Pettinelli, P. M. Barone, E. Mattei, A. Di Matteo, and F. Soldovieri

References 667

10 Remote Sensing and Security 689

10.1 Introduction 689
A. A. Vertiy

10.2 Through-Wall Imaging and Detection 690
A. A. Vertiy and S. Gavrilov

10.3 Millimeter-WaveBand Passive Imaging 721
A. Denisov and A. A. Vertiy

References 740

11 Mine Detection 743

11.1 The Landmine Problem 743
A. G. Yarovoy

11.2 Overview of Demining Techniques 745
A. G. Yarovoy

11.3 Advanced Electromagnetic Induction Sensor 747
A. G. Yarovoy and H. Ewald

11.4 Ground-Penetrating Radar 750
A. G. Yarovoy

11.5 Electrooptical Sensors 753
A. G. Yarovoy

11.6 Chemical Sensor Arrays for Mine Detection 755
Z. Z. Ozturk and M. Harbeck

11.7 Sensor Fusion 757
A. G. Yarovoy

11.8 ALIS: A Handheld Multisensor System for Landmine Detection 758
M. Sato

11.9 Conclusions 769

References 769

12 Transportation and Civil Engineering 773

12.1 Introduction 773
E. Proverbio

12.2 Proper Sensor Types 785
E. Proverbio

12.3 Ground-Penetrating Radar for Road Characterization 795
A. S. Turk and F. Soldovieri

12.4 Eddy Current Tomography for Three-Dimensional Imaging in Conductive Materials 818
A. A. Vertiy

12.5 Ultrasonic Methods for Nondestructive Testing 824
D. Cleland

12.6 Impact Echo 836
E. Proverbio

12.7 Diagnostic Methods for Concrete and Bridges by Acoustic Emission 844
J. Stryk and K. Pospisil

12.8 Vibroacoustic Monitoring of Concrete Structures 860
S. Radkowski

12.9 Application of Nuclear Techniques for Civil Engineering 872
A. N. Bilge

References 877

Index 885

"I highly recommend the essential and definitive book Subsurface Sensing edited by Subsurface Sensing, to any students, engineers, practitioners, business leaders, and policy makers seeking a complete overview of the theory, technology, and applications of the critical field of subsurface sensing. This book is a must for anyone with an interest or need for subsurface detection in any area of engineering, resources, business, or scientific research." (Blog Business World, 18 December 2011)