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Superconductivity: An Introduction, 3rd Edition

Superconductivity: An Introduction, 3rd Edition

Reinhold Kleiner, Werner Buckel, Rudolf Huebener (Translator)

ISBN: 978-3-527-41162-7

Jan 2016

496 pages

Description

The third edition of this proven text has been developed further in both scope and scale to reflect the potential for superconductivity in power engineering to increase efficiency in electricity transmission or engines.
The landmark reference remains a comprehensive introduction to the field, covering every aspect from fundamentals to applications, and presenting the latest developments in organic superconductors, superconducting interfaces, quantum coherence, and applications in medicine and industry.
Due to its precise language and numerous explanatory illustrations, it is suitable as an introductory textbook, with the level rising smoothly from chapter to chapter, such that readers can build on their newly acquired knowledge.
The authors cover basic properties of superconductors and discuss stability and different material groups with reference to the latest and most promising applications, devoting the last third of the book to applications in power engineering, medicine, and low temperature physics. An extensive list of more than 350 references provides an overview of the most important publications on the topic.
A unique and essential guide for students in physics and engineering, as well as a reference for more advanced researchers and young professionals.

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Preface to the Third Edition IX

Introduction 1

References 9

1 Fundamental Properties of Superconductors 11

1.1 The Vanishing of the Electrical Resistance 11

1.2 Ideal Diamagnetism, Flux Lines, and Flux Quantization 21

1.3 Flux Quantization in a Superconducting Ring 30

1.4 Superconductivity: A Macroscopic Quantum Phenomenon 33

1.5 Quantum Interference 45

1.5.1 Josephson Currents 47

1.5.2 Quantum Interference in a Magnetic Field 59

References 71

2 Superconducting Elements, Alloys, and Compounds 75

2.1 Introductory Remarks 75

2.1.1 Discovery, Preparation, and Characterization of New Superconductors 75

2.1.2 Conventional and Unconventional Superconductors 76

2.2 Superconducting Elements 78

2.3 Superconducting Alloys and Metallic Compounds 83

2.3.1 The β-Tungsten Structure 84

2.3.2 Magnesium Diboride 86

2.3.3 Metal–Hydrogen Systems 87

2.4 Fullerides 88

2.5 Chevrel Phases and Boron Carbides 89

2.6 Heavy-Fermion Superconductors 92

2.7 Natural and Artificial Layered Superconductors 94

2.8 The Superconducting Oxides 96

2.8.1 Cuprates 96

2.8.2 Bismuthates, Ruthenates, and Other Oxide Superconductors 103

2.9 Iron Pnictides and Related Compounds 104

2.10 Organic Superconductors 107

2.11 Superconductivity at Interfaces 110

References 111

3 Cooper Pairing 117

3.1 Conventional Superconductivity 117

3.1.1 Cooper Pairing by Means of Electron–Phonon Interaction 117

3.1.2 The Superconducting State, Quasiparticles, and BCSTheory 124

3.1.3 Experimental Confirmation of Fundamental Concepts about the Superconducting State 129

3.1.3.1 The Isotope Effect 130

3.1.3.2 The Energy Gap 133

3.1.4 Special Properties of Conventional Superconductors 150

3.1.4.1 Influence of Lattice Defects on Conventional Cooper Pairing 150

3.1.4.2 Influence of Paramagnetic Ions on Conventional Cooper Pairing 157

3.2 Unconventional Superconductivity 163

3.2.1 General Aspects 163

3.2.2 Cuprate Superconductors 170

3.2.3 Heavy Fermions, Ruthenates, and Other Unconventional Superconductors 186

3.2.4 FFLO-State and Multiband Superconductivity 193

References 196

4 Thermodynamics and Thermal Properties of the Superconducting State 201

4.1 General Aspects ofThermodynamics 201

4.2 Specific Heat 205

4.3 Thermal Conductivity 209

4.4 Ginzburg–LandauTheory 212

4.5 Characteristic Lengths of the Ginzburg–LandauTheory 216

4.6 Type-I Superconductors in a Magnetic Field 221

4.6.1 Critical Field and Magnetization of Rod-Shaped Samples 221

4.6.2 Thermodynamics of the Meissner State 226

4.6.3 Critical Magnetic Field of Thin Films in a Field Parallel to the Surface 230

4.6.4 The Intermediate State 231

4.6.5 TheWall Energy 235

4.6.6 Influence of Pressure on the Superconducting State 239

4.7 Type-II Superconductors in a Magnetic Field 244

4.7.1 Magnetization Curve and Critical Fields 246

4.7.2 The Shubnikov Phase 256

4.8 Fluctuations above the Transition Temperature 268

4.9 States Outside Thermodynamic Equilibrium 272

References 277

5 Critical Currents in Type-I and Type-II Superconductors 283

5.1 Limit of the Supercurrent Due to Pair Breaking 283

5.2 Type-I Superconductors 285

5.3 Type-II Superconductors 291

5.3.1 Ideal Type-II Superconductor 291

5.3.2 Hard Superconductors 296

5.3.2.1 Pinning of Flux Lines 296

5.3.2.2 Magnetization Curve of Hard Superconductors 301

5.3.2.3 Critical Currents and Current–Voltage Characteristics 310

References 318

6 Josephson Junctions and Their Properties 321

6.1 Current Transport across Interfaces in a Superconductor 321

6.1.1 Superconductor–Insulator Interface 321

6.1.2 Superconductor–Normal Conductor Interfaces 328

6.1.3 Superconductor–Ferromagnet Interfaces 335

6.2 The RCSJ Model 337

6.3 Josephson Junctions under Microwave Irradiation 342

6.4 Vortices in Long Josephson Junctions 346

6.5 Quantum Properties of Superconducting Tunnel Junctions 357

6.5.1 Coulomb Blockade and Single-Electron Tunneling 358

6.5.2 Flux Quanta and Macroscopic Quantum Coherence 363

References 368

7 Applications of Superconductivity 373

7.1 Superconducting Magnetic Coils 374

7.1.1 General Aspects 374

7.1.2 Superconducting Cables and Tapes 375

7.1.3 Coil Protection 386

7.2 Superconducting Permanent Magnets 388

7.3 Applications of Superconducting Magnets 390

7.3.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 390

7.3.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 394

7.3.3 Particle Accelerators 395

7.3.4 Nuclear Fusion 397

7.3.5 Energy Storage Devices 398

7.3.6 Motors and Generators 401

7.3.7 Magnetic Separation and Induction Heaters 404

7.3.8 Levitated Trains 405

7.4 Superconductors for Power Transmission: Cables, Transformers, and Current Fault Limiters 406

7.4.1 Superconducting Cables 407

7.4.2 Transformers 409

7.4.3 Current Fault Limiters 411

7.5 Superconducting Resonators and Filters 412

7.5.1 High-Frequency Behavior of Superconductors 413

7.5.2 Resonators for Particle Accelerators 417

7.5.3 Resonators and Filters for Communications Technology 420

7.6 Superconducting Detectors 425

7.6.1 Sensitivity,Thermal Noise, and Environmental Noise 426

7.6.2 Incoherent Radiation and Particle Detection: Bolometers and Calorimeters 427

7.6.3 Coherent Detection and Generation of Radiation: Mixers, Local Oscillators, and Integrated Receivers 431

7.6.4 Quantum Interferometers as Magnetic Field Sensors 440

7.6.4.1 SQUID Magnetometer: Basic Concepts 440

7.6.4.2 Environmental Noise, Gradiometers, and Shielding 450

7.6.4.3 Applications of SQUIDs 454

7.7 Superconductors in Microelectronics 459

7.7.1 Voltage Standards 460

7.7.2 Digital Electronics Based on Josephson Junctions 463

References 468

Monographs and Article Collections 477

History of Superconductivity 477

General Books 477

Special Materials 477

Tunnel Junctions, Josephson Junctions, and Vortices 477

Nonequilibrium Superconductivity 478

Applications of Superconductivity 478

General Overview 478

Magnets, Cables, Power Applications 478

Microwaves, Magnetic Field Sensors, Electronics 478

Low Temperature Physics and Technology 478

Index 479

* All chapters have been checked and revised, references have been brought up to date
* Superconductiong materials now include pnictides and borides; picen; üpdate on cuprates
* New section on interfaces of superconductor/ferromagnets
* New edition covers Circuit-QED
* Applicatins part expanded to modern applications in power engineering (a high potential area for the exploitation of superconductivity), medicine, and microelectronics.
""The reader will find a comprehensive and legible treatment of the entire field, an overview of the theoretical concepts and a detailed description of all recent applications."" (Metall 2016)