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Surface Analysis with STM and AFM: Experimental and Theoretical Aspects of Image Analysis

Surface Analysis with STM and AFM: Experimental and Theoretical Aspects of Image Analysis

Sergei N. Magonov, Myung-Hwan Whangbo

ISBN: 978-3-527-61510-0 September 2008 335 Pages




Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are powerful tools for surface examination. In the past, many STM and AFM studies led to erroneous conclusions due to lack of proper theoretical considerations and of an understanding of how image patterns are affected by measurement conditions. For this book, two world experts, one on theoretical analysis and the other on experimental characterization, have joined forces to bring together essential components of STM and AFM studies: The practical aspects of STM, the image simulation by surface electron density plot calculations, and the qualitative evaluation of tip-force induced surface corrugations.

Practical examples are taken from:

* inorganic layered materials
* organic conductors
* organic adsorbates at liquid-solid interfaces
* self-assembled amphiphiles
* polymers

This book will be an invaluable reference work for researchers active in STM and AMF as well as for newcomers to the field.

1 Introduction.

1.1 Development of Scanning Probe Microscopy.

1.2 Key Problems of STM and AFM Applications.

1.3 Objectives.

2 Physical Phenomena Relevant to STM and AFM.

2.1 Electron Transport Processes.

2.2 Survey of Force Interactions.

3 Scanning Probe Microscopes.

3.1 Operating Principles and Main Components.

3.2 Scanning Tunneling Microscope.

3.3 Atomic Force Microscope.

3.4 STM and AFM as Metrology Tools.

4 Practical Aspects of STM and AFM Measurements.

4.1 Samples.

4.2 Optimization of Experiments.

4.3 STM and AFM Measurements.

5 Simulations of STM and AFM Images.

5.1 Electronic Structures of Solids.

5.2 Theoretical Aspects of STM.

5.3 Theoretical Aspects of AFM.

5.4 Image Simulation by Density Plot Calculations.

6 STM and AFM Images of Layered Inorganic Compounds.

6.1 Layers from MX6 Trigonal Prisms and Octahedra.

6.2 Images of Layered Compounds.

6.3 Charge Density Waves of MC8 (M = K, Rb, Cs).

6.4 Concluding Remarks.

7 STM Images Associated with Point Defects of Layered Inorganic Compounds.

7.1 Imperfections in Compounds with Metal Clusters.

7.2 Point Defects in Semiconductor 2H-MoS2.

7.3 Cases Tractable by Electronic Band Structure Calculations.

7.4 Cases Intractable by Electronic Band Structure Calculations.

7.5 Survey of Image Imperfections Observed for d2 2H-MX2 Systems.

8 Tip-Sample Interactions.

8.1 Electronic Interactions in STM.

8.2 Force Interactions in STM.

8.3 Tip-Sample Interactions in AFM.

8.4 Concluding Remarks.

9 Surface Relaxation in STM and AFM Images.

9.1 Tip Force Induced Deformation in HOPG.

9.2 Wagon-Wheel Patterns of MoSe2 Epilayers on MoS2.

9.3 STM and AFM Images of α-RuCl3 and α-MoCl3.

9.4 Layered lhnsition-Metal Tellurides MAxTe2.

9.5 Tip Force Induced Changes in AFM Images of NbTe2.

9.6 Nanoscale Ring Structure of MoS2 and WSe2.

9.7 Concluding Remarks.

10 Organic Conducting Salts.

10.1 Crystal and Electronic Structure.

10.2 Early STM Studies Organic Conductors.

10.3 STM and AFM Imaging of Organic Conductors.

10. 4 Analysis of the Images of TCNQ Salts.

10.5 Analysis of the Images of BEDT-TTF Salts.

10.6 Concluding Remarks.

11 Organic Adsorbates at Liquid/Solid Interfaces.

11.1 STM of Organic Adsorbates.

11.2 STM of Normal and Cyclic Alkane Layers.

11.3 Influence of Substrate on Adsorbate Structure.

11.4 Concluding Remarks.

12 Self-Assembled Structures.

12.1 Scanning Probe Microscopy Studies of Thin Organic Films.

12.2 Self-Organization of Amphiphiles.

12.3 AFM Study of N-(n-Alkyl)-D-gluconamides.

12.4 AFM Study of N-(n-alkyl)-N'-D-maltosylsemicarbazones.

12.5 Concluding Remark.

13 Polymers.

13.1 General Considerations.

13.2 STM of Polymer Samples.

13.3 AFM of Polymer Crystal Surfaces.

13.4 AFM of Oriented Polymers.

13.5 AFM of Di-Block Copolymers.

13.6 Concluding Remarks.

14 Future Outlook.