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Surface Modification of Nanoparticle and Natural Fiber Fillers

Surface Modification of Nanoparticle and Natural Fiber Fillers

Vikas Mittal (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-67026-0

Jun 2015

240 pages

Description

A review of the various methodologies for the surface treatment of different types of inorganic spherical and fibrous fillers, describing ball milling, cationic polymerization, vapor phase grafting, plasma treatment and UV irradiation in detail. In addition, the book connects the resulting composite properties to the modified filler surface properties, thus allowing for a purposeful, application-oriented composite design.

Preface IX

List of Contributors XI

1 Surface Modification of Nanomaterials for Application in Polymer Nanocomposites: An Overview 1
Muthukumaraswamy Rangaraj Vengatesan and VikasMittal

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Types of Nanomaterials 2

1.2.1 Zero-Dimensional (0D) Nanomaterial 2

1.2.2 One-Dimensional (1D) Nanomaterials 2

1.2.3 Two-Dimensional (2D) Nanomaterials 3

1.2.4 Three-Dimensional (3D) Nanomaterials 3

1.3 Synthetic Methodologies of Nanomaterials 3

1.4 Surface Modification of Nanomaterials and Their Advantages in Polymer Composites 3

1.4.1 Silane Grafting 3

1.4.2 Polymer Grafting 6

1.4.3 Surface Modification of Nanomaterials Using Surfactants 9

1.5 Method for the Incorporation of Nanomaterials in a Polymer Matrix 10

1.5.1 Sol–Gel Method 10

1.5.2 Blending Method 11

1.5.2.1 Solution Blending Method 11

1.5.2.2 Melt Blending 13

1.5.3 In Situ Polymerization 13

1.6 Influence of Surface-Modified Nanomaterials on the Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites 14

1.6.1 Thermal and Flame-Retardant Properties 14

1.6.2 Mechanical Properties 16

1.6.3 Electrical Properties 19

1.7 Conclusion 21

Abbreviations 22

References 22

2 Surface Modification of Boron Carbide for Improved Adhesion to an Epoxy Matrix 29
David D. Rodrigues and James G. Broughton

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Powder Synthesis 30

2.3 Ceramic Components 31

2.4 Composites 32

2.5 Native Surface Chemistry 35

2.6 Silane Surface Modification 37

2.7 Silane-Treated Boron Carbide 40

2.7.1 Surface Free Energy of BC 40

2.7.2 Wettability of the Adhesive on the BC Surface 41

2.7.3 Surface Chemistry of BC Surfaces 43

2.7.4 Silane Layer on BC Surface 49

2.7.5 Silane Layer Coverage 50

2.7.6 Adhesion at Particle/Adhesive Matrix Interface 51

2.8 Proposed Mechanism for the Silane Treatment of BC Surface 52

2.9 Summary 53

References 54

3 Surface Modification of Hydroxyapatite for Bone Tissue Engineering 61
Junchao Wei, Lan Liao, Jianxun Ding, Xiuli Zhuang, and Xuesi Chen

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Surface Modification of HA 62

3.2.1 “Grafting Onto”Method 62

3.2.1.1 Condensation Reaction 62

3.2.1.2 “Click” Reaction 63

3.2.2 “Grafting From” Approach 64

3.2.2.1 Ring-Opening Polymerization (ROP) 65

3.2.2.2 Radical Polymerization 69

3.2.3 Other Techniques 73

3.3 Applications for Bone Tissue Engineering 75

3.4 Conclusion and Perspective 79

Acknowledgment 79

References 79

4 Influence of Filler Surface Modification on the Properties of PP Composites 83
Devrim Balköse

4.1 Introduction 83

4.2 Silica Modification 83

4.3 Glass 85

4.4 Silicates 87

4.5 Mg(OH)2 and Eggshell Modification 92

4.6 Cellulose 94

4.7 Carbon 101

4.8 Conclusion 104

References 105

5 ScCO2 Techniques for Surface Modification of Micro- and Nanoparticles 109
Pascale Subra-Paternault and Conception Domingo

5.1 Introduction 109

5.2 Compressed CO2 and {CO2 + Solvent} Properties 113

5.3 Modification of Particles Using CO2 as Solvent (Route 1) 117

5.3.1 Chemical Grafting 117

5.3.1.1 Dyeing 118

5.3.1.2 Silanization 119

5.3.1.3 Application-Driven Processes 123

5.3.2 Decoration of Structures by Physical Deposition 125

5.3.2.1 By Metals (scCO2 Precursor Deposition and Post-decomposition) 125

5.3.2.2 With Neat Ingredients (scCO2 Infiltration, No Posttreatment) 127

5.4 Modification of Particles Using CO2 as Non-solvent (Route 2) 129

5.4.1 Modification by Coprecipitation from Homogeneous Solution 130

5.4.2 Modification by Precipitation from Suspension: Coating Preexisting Particles 132

5.5 Modification of Particles Using CO2 as Expanding Medium (Route 3) 136

5.5.1 Modification through CO2-Expanded Aqueous or Organic Solution 137

5.5.2 Solvent-Free Modification through CO2-Molten Polymer or Lipids 138

Acknowledgments 140

References 140

6 Surface Treatment of Sepiolite Particles with Polymers 151
Sevim Isci

6.1 Introduction 151

6.2 Surface Properties of Sepiolite 153

6.3 Interactions of Sepiolite with Polymers 155

6.4 The Changes in Colloidal Properties of Sepiolite with Polymers 158

6.5 Thermal Properties 162

6.6 Structural Changes 163

6.7 Adsorption Isotherms 164

References 166

7 Surface Modification of Aluminum Nitride and Silicon Oxycarbide for Silicone Rubber Composites 171
Hsien Tang Chiu and Tanapon Sukachonmakul

7.1 Introduction 171

7.2 Experimental 172

7.2.1 Materials 172

7.2.2 Surface Modification of AlN 173

7.2.3 Preparation of Silicone Rubber Filled with PSZ/AlN and SiOC/AlN 173

7.2.4 Characterization 173

7.3 Results and Discussion 175

7.3.1 Characterization of PSZ/AlN and SiOC/AlN 175

7.3.2 Thermal Conductivity of Silicone Rubber Filled with PSZ/AlN and SiOC/AlN 180

7.3.3 Thermal Stability and Mechanical Properties of Silicone Rubber Filled with PSZ/AlN and SiOC/AlN 185

7.4 Conclusions 186

Acknowledgment 187

References 187

8 Surface Modification of Natural and Synthetic Polymeric Fibers for TiO2-Based Nanocomposites 191
Nuno A.F. Almeida, Patrícia R. da Silva, Gil A.B. Gonçalves, and Paula A.A.P. Marques

8.1 Introduction 191

8.2 Structure of Titanium Dioxide 192

8.3 Natural Fibers 195

8.3.1 Cellulose Fibers Functionalized with TiO2 195

8.3.1.1 Methods of Preparation 196

8.3.1.2 Applications 199

8.4 Synthetic Fibers 202

8.4.1 Polyamide Fibers 204

8.4.1.1 Methods of Preparation 204

8.4.1.2 Applications 205

8.4.2 Polyester Fibers 205

8.4.2.1 Methods of Preparation 208

8.4.2.2 Applications 210

8.4.3 Vinyl Polymers (Polyolefins and Acrylic Fibers) 210

8.4.3.1 Methods and Applications 211

8.4.4 Elastomers 211

References 212

Index 221