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Surface and Interfacial Forces

Surface and Interfacial Forces

Hans-Jürgen Butt, Michael Kappl

ISBN: 978-3-527-34165-8

Jul 2018

480 pages

Description

A general introduction to surface and interfacial forces, perfectly combining theoretical concepts, experimental techniques and practical applications.
In this completely updated edition all the chapters have been thoroughly revised and extended to cover new developments and approaches with around 15% new content. A large part of the book is devoted to surface forces between solid surfaces in liquid media, and while a basic knowledge of colloid and interface science is helpful, it is not essential since all important concepts are explained and the theoretical concepts can be understood with an intermediate knowledge of mathematics. A number of exercises with solutions and the end-of-chapter summaries of the most important equations, facts and phenomena serve as additional tools to strengthen the acquired knowledge and allow for self-study.
The result is a readily accessible text that helps to foster an understanding of the intricacies of this highly relevant topic.

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1 INTRODUCTION

2 VAN DER WAALS FORCES
2.1 Van der Waals Forces Between Molecules
2.2 The Van der Waals Force Between Macroscopic Solids
2.3 The Derjaguin Approximation
2.4 Retarded Van der Waals Forces
2.5 Measurement of Van der Waals Forces
2.6 The Casimir Force
2.7 Summary
2.8 Exercises

3 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
3.1 Surface Forces Apparatus
3.2 Atomic Force Microscope
3.3 Optical Tweezers
3.4 Total Internal Re¿ection Microscopy
3.5 Magnetic Tweezers
3.6 Summary
3.7 Exercises

4 ELECTROSTATIC DOUBLE-LAYER FORCES
4.1 The Electric Double Layer
4.2 Poisson?Boltzmann Theory of the Diffuse Double Layer
4.3 Beyond Poisson?Boltzmann Theory
4.4 The Gibbs Energy of the Electric Double Layer
4.5 The Electrostatic Double-Layer Force
4.6 The DLVO Theory
4.7 Electrostatic Forces in Nonpolar Media
4.8 Summary
4.9 Exercises

5 CAPILLARY FORCES
5.1 Equation of Young and Laplace
5.2 Kelvin Equation and Capillary Condensation
5.3 The Young?s Equation
5.4 Capillary Forces Calculated with the Circular Approximation
5.5 In¿uence of Roughness
5.6 Kinetics of Capillary Bridge Formation and Rupture
5.7 Capillary Forces in Immiscible liquid Mixtures and Other Systems
5.8 Lateral Forces Between Particles at a Fluid Interface
5.9 Summary
5.10 Exercises

6 HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES
6.1 Fundamentals of Hydrodynamics
6.2 Hydrodynamic Force between a Solid Sphere and a Plate
6.3 Hydrodynamic Boundary Condition
6.4 Gibbs Adsorption Isotherm
6.5 Hydrodynamic Forces Between Fluid Boundaries
6.6 Summary
6.7 Exercises

7 INTERFACIAL FORCES BETWEEN FLUID INTERFACES AND ACROSS THIN FILMS
7.1 Overview
7.2 The Disjoining Pressure
7.3 Drainage
7.4 Thin Film Balance
7.5 Interfacial Forces Across Foam and Emulsion Films
7.6 Thin Wetting Films
7.7 Summary
7.8 Exercises

8 CONTACT MECHANICS AND ADHESION
8.1 Surface Energy of Solids
8.2 Contact Mechanics
8.3 In¿uence of Surface Roughness
8.4 Adhesion Force Measurements
8.5 Summary
8.6 Exercises

9 FRICTION
9.1 Macroscopic Friction
9.2 Lubrication
9.3 Microscopic Friction: Nanotribology
9.4 Summary
9.5 Exercises

10 SOLVATION FORCES AND NON-DLVO FORCES IN WATER
10.1 Solvation Forces
10.2 Non-DLVO Forces in an Aqueous Medium
10.3 The Interaction Between Lipid Bilayers
10.4 Force Between Surfaces with Adsorbed Molecules
10.5 Summary
10.6 Exercises

11 SURFACE FORCES IN POLYMER SOLUTIONS AND MELTS
11.1 Properties of Polymers
11.2 Polymer Solutions
11.3 Steric Repulsion
11.4 Polymer-Induced Forces in Solutions
11.5 Bridging Attraction
11.6 Depletion and Structural Forces
11.7 Interfacial Forces in Polymer Melts
11.8 Summary
11.9 Exercises

12 SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES