DescriptionMost modern surfactants are readily biodegradable and exhibit low toxicity in the aquatic environment, the two criteria for green surfactants. However the majority are synthesised from petroleum, so over the past decade the detergent industry has turned its attention to developing greener routes to create these surfactants via renewable building blocks.
Surfactants from Renewable Resources presents the latest research and commercial applications in the emerging field of sustainable surfactant chemistry, with emphasis on production technology, surface chemical properties, biodegradability, ecotoxicity, market trends, economic viability and life-cycle analysis.
Reviewing traditional sources for renewable surfactants as well as recent advances, this text focuses on techniques with potential for large scale application.
Topics covered include:
- Renewable hydrophobes from natural fatty acids and forest industry by-products
- Renewable hydrophiles from carbohydrates, amino acids and lactic acid
- New ways of making renewable building blocks; ethylene from renewable resources and complex mixtures from waste biomass
- Surface active polymers
List of Contributors.
PART 1 RENEWABLE HYDROPHOBES.
1 Surfactants Based on Natural Fatty Acids (Martin Svensson).
1.1 Introduction and History.
1.2 Fats and Oils as Raw Materials.
1.3 Fatty Acid Soaps.
1.4 Polyethylene Glycol Fatty Acid Esters.
1.5 Polyglycerol Fatty Acid Esters.
2 Nitrogen Derivatives of Natural Fats and Oils (Ralph Franklin).
2.2 Manufacture of Fatty Nitrogen Derivatives.
2.3 Production Data.
2.4 Ecological Aspects.
2.6 Properties of Nitrogen-Based Surfactants.
3 Surface-Active Compounds as Forest-Industry By-Products (Bjarne Holmbom, Anna Sundberg and Anders Strand).
3.2 Resin and Fatty Acids.
3.3 Sterols and Sterol Ethoxylates.
PART 2 REWNEWABLE HYDROPHILES.
4 Surfactants Based on Carbohydrates and Proteins for Consumer Products and Technical Applications (Karlheinz Hill).
4.2 Raw Materials.
4.3 Products and Applications.
5 Amino Acids, Lactic Acid and Ascorbic Acid as Raw Materials for Biocompatible Surfactants (Carmen Moran, Lourdes Perez, Ramon Pons, Aurora Pinazo and Maria Rosa Infante).
5.2 Production of Raw Materials.
5.3 Lysine-Based Surfactants.
5.4 Lactic Acid-Based Surfactants.
5.5 Ascorbic Acid-Based Surfactants.
PART 3 NEW WAYS OF MAKING RENEWABLE BUILDING BLOCKS.
6 Ethylene from Renewable Resources (Anna Lundgren and Thomas Hjertberg).
6.2 Why Produce Ethylene from Renewable Resources?
6.3 Production of Ethylene from Renewable Feedstock.
6.4 Commercialization of Bioethylene.
6.5 Environmental Impact of Bioethylene.
6.6 Certificate of Green Carbon Content.
6.7 Concluding Remarks.
7 Fermentation-Based Building Blocks for Renewable Resource-Based Surfactants (Kris Arvid Berglund, Ulrika Rova, David B Hodge).
7.2 Existing and Potential Classes of Surfactants from Biologically-Derived Metabolites.
7.3 Fermentation-Based Building Blocks with Large Existing Markets.
7.4 New Fermentation-Based Building Blocks.
PART 4 BIOSURFACTANTS.
8 Synthesis of Surfactants Using Enzymes (Patrick Adlercreutz and Rajni Hatti-Kaul).
8.2 Enzymes as Catalysts for Synthesis of Surfactants.
8.3 Enzymatic Synthesis of Polar Lipids Useful as Surfactants.
8.4 Carbohydrate Esters.
8.5 Fatty Amide Surfactants.
8.6 Amino Acid-Based Surfactants.
8.7 Alkyl Glycosides.
8.8 Future Prospects.
9 Surfactants from Waste Biomass (Flor Yunuen García-Becerra, David Grant Allen, and Edgar Joel Acosta).
9.2 Surfactants Obtained from Biological Transformation of Waste Biomass.
9.3 Surfactants Obtained from Chemical Transformation of Waste Biomass.
9.4 Summary and Outlook.
10 Lecithin and Other Phospholipids (Willem van Nieuwenhuyzen).
10.2 Sources and Production.
10.4 Quality and Analysis of Lecithins.
10.6 Emulsifying Properties.
10.8 Legislation and Reach.
11 Sophorolipids and Rhamnolipids (Dirk W. G. Develter and Steve J. J. Fleurackers).
11.2 Derivatives of Native Sophorolipids.
11.3 Biosynthesis of Novel Sophorolipids.
11.5 Cleaning Applications Using Sophorolipids and Rhamnolipids.
12 Saponin-Based Surfactants (Wieslaw Oleszek and Arafa Hamed).
12.2 Molecular Properties.
12.3 Sources of Saponins.
12.4 Saponins as Emulsifiers and Surfactants.
12.5 Application of Saponins as Surfactants and Emulsifiers.
PART 5 POLYMERIC SURFACTANTS/SURFACE-ACTIVE POLYMERS
13 Surface-Active Polymers from Cellulose (Leif Karlson).
13.2 Structure and Synthesis of Cellulose Ether.
13.3 Cellulose Ethers in Aqueous Solution.
13.4 Interaction with Surfactants.
14 New Developments in the Commercial Utilization of Lignosulfonates (Rolf Andreas Lauten, Bernt O. Myrvold and Stig Are Gundersen).
14.3 Lignosulfonate Production.
14.4 Environmental Issues.
14.5 Lignosulfonates as Stabilizers for Emulsions and Suspoemulsions.
14.6 Superplasticizers for Concrete.
15 Dispersion Stabilizers Based on Inulin (Tharwat Tadros and Bart Levecke).
15.2 Solution Properties of Long-Chain Inulin and Hydrophobically Modified Inulin (HMI).
15.3 Interfacial Aspects of HMI at Various Interfaces.
15.4 Emulsions Stabilized Using HMI.
15.5 Emulsion Polymerization Using HMI.
15.6 Use of HMI for Preparation and Stabilization of Nanoemulsions.