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Survey Methods in Multinational, Multiregional, and Multicultural Contexts


A unique collaboration featuring the latest methodologies and research on multi- and cross-national surveys

Over the past two decades, the relevance of cross-national and cross-cultural methodologies has heightened across various fields of study. Responding to increasing cultural diversity and rapid changes in how research is conducted, Survey Methods in Multinational, Multiregional, and Multicultural Contexts addresses the need for refined tools and improved procedures in cross-cultural and cross-national studies worldwide.

Based on research submitted to the International Conference on Multinational, Multicultural, and Multiregional Survey Methods (3MC), this book identifies important changes in comparative methodology approaches, outlines new findings, and provides insight into future developments in the field. Some of the world's leading survey researchers gather in this volume to address the need for a standard framework that promotes quality assurance and quality control in survey research, and its impact on various stages of the survey life cycle, including study design and organization, cross-national sampling, testing and pretesting, data collection, and input and output variable harmonization. Self-contained chapters feature coverage of various topics, such as:

  • Question and questionnaire design, from both global and study-specific perspectives

  • The construction and evaluation of survey translations and instrument adaptations

  • The effects of cultural difference on the perception of question and response categories

  • Non-response issues

  • Analysis in comparative contexts, featuring discussion of polytomous item response theory, categorization problems, and Multi-Trait-Multi-Methods (MTMM)

  • The significance of evolving methodologies for current international survey programs, including the European Social Survey, the International Social Survey Programme, and the Gallup World Poll

Survey Methods in Multinational, Multiregional, and Multicultural Contexts is a valuable supplement for courses on comparative survey methods at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It also serves as an insightful reference for professionals who design, implement, and analyze comparative research in the areas of business, public health, and the social and behavioral sciences.

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1 Comparative Survey Methodology (Janet A. Harkness, Michael Braun, Brad Edwards, Timothy P. Johnson, Lars Lyberg, Peter Ph. Mohler, Beth-Ellen Pennell, and Tom W. Smith).

2 Equivalence, Comparability, and Methodological Progress (Peter Ph. Mohler and Timothy P. Johnson).


3 Designing Questionnaires for Multipopulation Research (Janet A. Harkness, Brad Edwards, Sue Ellen Hansen, Debra R. Miller, and Ana Villar).

4 Creating Questions and Protocols for an International Study of Ideas About Development and Family Life (Arland Thornton, Alexandra Achen, Jennifer S. Barber, Georgina Binstock, Wade M. Garrison, DirghaJ. Ghimire, Ronald Inglehart, Rukmalie Jayakody, Yang Jiang, Julie de Jong, Katherine King, Ron J. Lesthaeghe, Sohair Mehanna, Colter Mitchell, Mansoor Moaddel, Mary Beth Ofstedal, Norbert Schwarz, Guangzhou Wang, Yu Xie, Li-Shou Yang, Linda Ñ Young-DeMarco, andKathryn Yount).

5 Managing the Cognitive Pretesting of Multilingual Survey Instruments: A Case Study of Pretesting of the U.S. Census Bureau Bilingual Spanish/English Questionnaire (Patricia L. Goerman and Rachel A. Caspar).

6 Cognitive Interviewing in Non-English Languages: A Cross-Cultural Perspective (Yuling Pan, Ashley Landreth, Hyunjoo Park, Marjorie Hinsdale-Shouse, and Alisu Schoua-Glusberg).


7 Translation, Adaptation, and Design (Janet A. Harkness, Ana Villar, and Brad Edwards).

8 Evaluation of a Multistep Survey Translation Process (Gordon B. Willis, Martha Stapleton Kudela, Kerry Levin, Alicia Norberg, Debra S. Stark, Barbara H. Forsyth, Pat Dean Brick, David Berrigan, Frances E. Thompson, Deirdre Lawrence, and Anne M. Hartman).

9 Developments in Translation Verification Procedures in Three Multilingual Assessments: A Plea for an Integrated Translation and Adaptation Monitoring Tool (Steve Dept, Andrea Ferrari, and Laura Wäyrynen).


10 Cognition, Communication, and Culture: Implications for the Survey Response Process (Norbert Schwarz, Daphna Oyserman, and Emilia Peytcheva).

11 Cultural Emphasis on Honor, Modesty, or Self-Enhancement: Implications for the Survey-Response Process (Ayse K. Uskul, Daphna Oyserman, and Norbert Schwarz).

12 Response Styles and Culture (Yongwei Yang, Janet A. Harkness, Tzu-Yun Chin, and Ana Villar).


13 Quality Assurance and Quality Control in Cross-National Comparative Studies (Lars Lyberg and Diana Maria Stukel).

14 Sampling Designs for Cross-Cultural and Cross-National Survey Programs (Steven G. Heeringa and Colm Î 'Muircheartaigh).

15 Challenges in Cross-National Data Collection (Beth-Ellen Pennell, Janet A. Harkness, Rachel Levenstein, and Martine Quaglia).

16 A Survey Process Quality Perspective on Documentation (Peter Ph. Mohler, Sue Ellen Hansen, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Wendy Thomas, Joachim Wackerow, and Frost Hubbard).

17 Harmonizing Survey Data (Peter Granda, Christof Wolf, and Reto Hadorn).


18 The Use of Contact Data in Understanding Cross-National Differences in Unit Nonresponse (Annelies G. Blom, Annette Jackie, and Peter Lynn).

19 Item Nonresponse and Imputation of Annual Labor Income in Panel Surveys from a Cross-National Perspective (Joachim R. Frick and Markus M. Grabka).


20 An Illustrative Review of Techniques for Detecting Inequivalences (Michael Braun and Timothy P. Johnson).

21 Analysis Models for Comparative Surveys (Joop J. Hox, Edith de Leeuw, andMatthieu J.S. Brinkhuis).

22 Using Polytomous Item Response Theory to Examine Differential Item and Test Functioning: The Case of Work Ethic (David J. Woehr and John P. Meriac).

23 Categorization Errors and Differences in the Quality of Questions in Comparative Surveys (Daniel Oberski, Willem E. Saris, and Jacques A. Hagenaars).

24 Making Methods Meet: Mixed Design in Cross-Cultural Research (Fons J.R. van de Vijver andAthanasios Chasiotis).


25 The Globalization of Survey Research (Tom W. Smith).

26 Measurement Equivalence in Comparative Surveys: the European Social Survey (ESS)—From Design to Implementation and Beyond (Rory Fitzgerald and Roger Jowell).

27 The International Social Survey Programme: Annual Cross-National Surveys Since 1985 (Knut KalgraffSkjäk).

28 Longitudinal Data Collection in Continental Europe: Experiences from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) (Axel Börsch-Supan, Karsten Hank, Hendrik Jürges, and Mathis Schröder0.

29 Assessment Methods in IEA's TIMSS and PIRLS International Assessments of Mathematics, Science, and Reading (Ina V. S. Mullis and Michael O. Martin).

30 Enhancing Quality and Comparability in the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES) (David A. Howell).

31 The Gallup World Poll (Robert D. Tortora, Rajesh Srinivasan, and Neli Esipova).



“For now, we commend all the editors of this book for having compiled the tremendous amount of material received, edited and organized it in such a way that enables this unique and pioneering book advance the field of 3M.”  (Biz India, 1 May 2012)