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Surveying, 6th Edition

Jack C. McCormac, Wayne Sarasua, William Davis

ISBN: 978-1-118-32422-6 May 2012 400 Pages


Surveying Sixth Edition is designed to cover the standard topics in a basic surveying course in a streamlined manner, meeting the learning needs of today's student. This text provides comprehensive yet concise coverage of the essential skills necessary in surveying and civil engineering, such as measurement, distance corrections, leveling, angles, area computation, computer calculations, topographic surveying, electronic distance measuring instruments, and construction surveying. The text includes photos and diagrams, lists of useful addresses and degree programs, surveying tables, and formulas.  New co-authors Wayne A. Sarasua and William J. Davis bring a fresh perspective to this classic text.

This text is suitable for students in a one-semester course at two and four-year colleges taking their first course on surveying.


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1 Introduction

1.1 Surveying

1.2 Geomatics

1.3 Famous Surveyors

1.4 Early History of Surveying

1.5 Plane Surveys

1.6 Geodetic Surveys

1.7 Types of Surveys

1.8 Modern Surveying Equipment

1.9 Use of Old Surveying Equipment

1.10 Maintenance of Equipment

1.11 Importance of Surveying

1.12 Safety

1.13 Liability Insurance

1.14 Opportunities in Surveying

2 Introduction to Measurements

2.1 Measurement

2.2 Necessity for Accurate Surveys

2.3 Accuracy and Precision

2.4 Errors and Mistakes

2.5 Sources of Errors

2.6 Systematic and Accidental or Random Errors

2.7 Discussion of Accidental or Random Errors

2.8 Occurrence of Accidental or Random Errors

2.9 Probability Curve

2.10 Propagation of Accidental or Random Errors

2.11 Significant Figures

2.12 Field Notes

2.13 Electronically Recorded Notes

2.14 Office Work and Digital Computers

2.15 Planning


3 Distance Measurement

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Pacing

3.3 Odometers and Measuring Wheels

3.4 Tachymetry

3.5 Taping or Chaining

3.6 Electronic Distance Measurements

3.7 Global Positioning System

3.8 Summary of Measurement Methods

3.9 Equipment Required for Taping

3.10 Taping Over Level Ground

3.11 Taping Along Sloping Ground or Over Underbrush

3.12 Review of Some Trigonometry


4 Distance Corrections

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Types of Corrections

4.3 Incorrect Tape Length or Standardization Error

4.4 Temperature Variations

4.5 Slope Corrections

4.6 Sag and Tension Corrections

4.7 Combined Taping Corrections

4.8 Common Mistakes Made In Taping

4.9 Errors In Taping

4.10 Magnitude of Errors

4.11 Suggestions for Good Taping

4.12 Taping Precision

5 Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments (EDMs)

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Basic Terms

5.3 Types of EDMs

5.4 Phase Shift EDMs

5.5 Timed Pulse EDMs

5.6 Setting Up, Leveling, and Centering EDMs

5.7 Necessary Steps for Measuring Distances with EDMs

5.8 Errors in EDM Measurements

5.9 Calibration of EDM Equipment

5.10 Accuracies of EDMs

5.11 Computation of Horizontal Distances from Slope Distances

5.12 Training of Personnel

5.13 Summary of Comments on EDMs


6 Introduction to Leveling

6.1 Importance of Leveling

6.2 Basic Definitions

6.3 Reference Elevations or Datums

6.4 First-, Second-, and Third-Order Surveys

6.5 Methods of Leveling

6.6 The Level

6.7 Types of Levels

6.8 Level Rods

6.9 Setting up the Level

6.10 Sensitivity of Bubble Tubes

6.11 Care of Equipment


7 Differential Leveling

7.1 Theory of Spirit Leveling

7.2 Definitions

7.3 Differential Leveling Described

7.4 Earth's Curvature and Atmospheric Refraction

7.5 Verniers

7.6 Level Rod Targets

7.7 Common Leveling Mistakes

7.8 Leveling Errors

7.9 Suggestions for Good Leveling

7.10 Comments On Telescope Readings

7.11 Precision of Differential Leveling

7.12 Hand Signals

8 Leveling, Continued

8.1 Adjustments of Level Circuits

8.2 Precise Leveling

8.3 Profile Leveling

8.4 Profiles

8.5 Cross Sections

8.6 Nonclosed Leveling Routes


9 Angles and Directions

9.1 Meridians

9.2 Units for Measuring Angles

9.3 Azimuths

9.4 Bearings

9.5 The Compass

9.6 Variations In Magnetic Declination

9.7 Direction Arrow Convention

9.8 Local Attraction

9.9 Reading Bearings With a Compass

9.10 Detecting Local Attraction

9.11 Traverse Angle Definitions

9.12 Traverse Computations

9.13 Magnetic Declination Problems


10 Measuring Angle and Directions With Total Stations

10.1 Transits and Theodolites (Obsolete)

10.2 Introduction to Total Stations

10.3 Types of Total Stations

10.4 Disadvantages of Total Stations

10.5 Advantages of Total Stations

10.6 Parts of Total Stations

10.7 Surveying With Total Stations

10.8 Setting Up the Total Station

10.9 Sighting the Instrument

10.10 Measuring Horizontal Angles

10.11 Closing the Horizon

10.12 Measuring Angles By Repetition

10.13 Direction Method for Measuring Horizontal Angles

10.14 Measuring Zenith Angles

10.15 Use of Data Collectors With Total Stations

10.16 Care of Instruments


11 Miscellaneous Angle Discussion

11.1 Common Errors In Angle Measurement

11.2 Common Mistakes In Measuring Angles

11.3 Angle-Distance Relationships

11.4 Traversing

11.5 Older Methods of Traversing

11.6 Modern Traversing With Total Stations

11.7 Intersection of Two Lines

11.8 Measuring An Angle Where The Instrument Cannot Be Set Up

11.9 Prolonging a Straight Line By Double Centering

11.10 Establishing Points On a Straight Line Between Two Given Points

11.11 Cleaning Surveying Equipment


12 Traverse Adjustment and Area Computation

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Computations

12.3 Methods of Calculating Areas

12.4 Traverse Adjustment Overview

12.5 Balancing Angles

12.6 Latitudes and Departures

12.7 Error of Closure

12.8 Balancing Latitudes and Departures

12.9 Double Meridian Distances

12.10 Double Parallel Distances

12.11 Rectangular Coordinates

12.12 Areas Computed By Coordinates

12.13 Alternative Coordinate Method

12.14 Areas Within Irregular Boundaries


13 Computer Calculations and Omitted Measurements

13.1 Computers

13.2 Programs

13.3 Application of the Computer Program SURVEY

13.4 Computer Example

13.5 A Potential Warning: Danger In Computer Use

13.6 Omitted Measurements

13.7 Length and Bearing Of One Side Missing

13.8 Using Survey to Determine the Length and Bearing of a Missing Side

13.9 Example Radiation Problem

13.10 Computer Solution for Radiation Problem

13.11 Resection


14 Topographic Surveying

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Contours

14.3 Plotting of Topographic Maps

14.4 Summary of Contour Characteristics

14.5 Map Symbols

14.6 Completing the Map

14.7 Specifications for Topographic Maps

14.8 Methods of Obtaining Topography

14.9 Transit-Stadia Method of Mapping

14.10 Plane Table Surveys

14.11 Topographic Details Obtained With Total Stations

14.12 Selection of Points for Topographic Mapping

14.13 Profiles From Contour Maps

14.14 Checklist of Items to Be Included On a Topographic Map


15 The Global Positioning System (GPS)

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Monitoring Stations

15.3 Global Navigation Satellite System

15.4 Uses of GPS

15.5 Basic Theory

15.6 How Can the Travel Time of a Satellite Signal Be Measured?

15.7 Clock Bias

15.8 GPS Errors

15.9 Minimizing Errors Through Differential Correction

15.10 Receivers

15.11 HARN

15.12 CORS

15.13 OPUS

15.14 WAAS

15.15 GPS Signals


16 GPS Field Applications

16.1 Geoid and Ellipsoid

16.2 Field Applications

16.3 Static GPS Surveys

16.4 Kinematic GPS

16.5 Real-Time Kinematic Surveying

16.6 Virtual Reference Station

16.7 Dilution of Precision (DOP)

16.8 Planning

16.9 Example Problem

16.10 Network Adjustment

16.11 Carrier Phase GPS


17 Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

17.1 Introduction

17.2 What? A Definition of Geographic Information Systems

17.3 Who and Where?

17.4 Why GIS?

17.5 When? The Evolution of GIS

17.6 Thematic Layering

17.7 Levels of Use of a GIS

17.8 Uses of Geographic Information Systems

17.9 Objectives of a GIS

17.10 Applications of a GIS

17.11 GIS on the World Wide Web

17.12 Accuracy in a GIS

17.13 Control Surveying

17.14 Legal Concerns With GIS


18 GIS, Continued

18.1 Essential Elements of a GIS

18.2 Selected Data About Geographic Locations

18.3 GIS Software

18.4 GIS Hardware

18.5 Sources of GIS Data

18.6 Putting Data into the Computer

18.7 Preprocessing Existing Data

18.8 Data Management and Retrieval

18.9 Manipulation and Analysis

18.10 Product Generation

18.11 Coordinates and Map Projections

18.12 Raster GIS

18.13 Conclusion to GIS Discussion


19 Construction Surveying

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Work of the Construction Surveyor

19.3 Trade Unions

19.4 Property Survey from the Contractor's Viewpoint

19.5 Preliminary Surveys

19.6 Grade Stakes

19.7 Referencing Points for Construction

19.8 Building Layout

19.9 Base Lines (Layout Performed By Surveyors)

19.10 Radial Staking Methods

19.11 Batter Boards

19.12 Building Layout: Contractor Method

19.13 As-Built Surveys


20 Volumes

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Slopes and Slope Stakes

20.3 Borrow Pits

20.4 Cross Sections

20.5 Areas of Cross Sections

20.6 Computation of Earthwork Volumes

20.7 Mass Diagram

20.8 Accounting for Shrinkage and Swell

20.9 Volumes from Contour Maps

20.10 Volume Formulas for Geometric Shapes


21 Land Surveying or Property Surveying

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Title Transfer and Land Records

21.3 Common Law

21.4 Monuments

21.5 Blazing Trees

21.6 The Land Surveyor: A Specialist

21.7 Monuments, Bearings, Distances, and Areas

21.8 Miscellaneous Terms Relating to Land Surveying

21.9 Resurveys

21.10 Metes and Bounds

21.11 The U.S. Public Lands Survey System

21.12 Early Days of the System

21.13 Outline of the System

21.14 Meander Lines

21.15 Witness Corners

21.16 Deed Descriptions of Land


22 Horizontal Curves

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Degree of Curvature and Radius of Curvature

22.3 Curve Equations

22.4 Deflection Angles

22.5 Selection and Staking Out of Curves

22.6 Computer Example

22.7 Field Procedure for Staking Out Curves

22.8 Circular Curves Using the SI System

22.9 Horizontal Curves Passing Through Certain Points

22.10 Spiral Curves


23 Vertical Curves

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Vertical Curve Calculations

23.3 Miscellaneous Items Relating to Vertical Curves

23.4 Unequal-Tangent Vertical Curves

23.5 Vertical Curve Passing Through a Specified Point

23.6 Parabolic Curve Equation

23.7 Computer Example

23.8 Roadway Crowns

23.9 Roadway Superelevation


24 Surveying-the Profession

24.1 Surveying Licenses

24.2 Registration Requirements

24.3 Penalties for Practicing Surveying Without a License

24.4 Reasons for Becoming Registered

24.5 A Profession

24.6 Code of Ethics

24.7 To Be Classed as a Professional

24.8 Conclusion


APPENDIX A: Some Useful Addresses

APPENDIX B: Baccalaureate Degree Programs in Surveying

APPENDIX C: Some Useful Formulas



• New co-authors Wayne A. Sarasua and William J. Davis bring a fresh perspective to this classic text.
• Expanded coverage of modern surveying instruments, particularly total stations.
• Coverage of the latest technologies, including laser scanning, and new developments in Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and enhanced coverage of Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
• Additional example problems help strengthen student comprehension of important concepts.
• Revised homework problems in every chapter reinforce acquisition and retention of surveying techniques.
• The Surveying Software (developed by Dr. Ron Williams, Minnesota State University) is available on the book website and provides the means for solving many common surveying problems.
• This text is suitable for students in a one-semester course at two and four-year colleges taking their first course on surveying.
• Concise and clearly written, providing an accessible introduction of surveying for undergraduate students.
• Paperback format provides ease-of-use for students doing field-based work.