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Sustainable Building Adaptation: Innovations in Decision-making

Sustainable Building Adaptation: Innovations in Decision-making

Sara J. Wilkinson, Hilde Remøy, Craig Langston

ISBN: 978-1-118-47718-2

Jan 2014, Wiley-Blackwell

296 pages

$102.99

Description

How to adapt existing building stock is a problem being addressed by local and state governments worldwide. In most developed countries we now spend more on building adaptation than on new construction and there is an urgent need for greater knowledge and awareness of what happens to commercial buildings over time.

Sustainable Building Adaptation: innovations in decision-making is a significant contribution to understanding best practice in sustainable adaptations to existing commercial buildings by offering new knowledge-based theoretical and practical insights. Models used are grounded in results of case studies conducted within three collaborative construction project team settings in Australia and the Netherlands, and exemplars are drawn from the Americas, Asia, Japan, Korea and Europe to demonstrate the application of the knowledge more broadly.

Results clearly demonstrate that the new models can assist with informed decision-making in adaptation that challenges some of the prevailing solutions based on empirical approaches and which do not accommodate the sustainability dimension. The emphasis is on demonstrating how the new knowledge can be applied by practitioners to deliver professionally relevant outcomes.

The book offers guidance towards a balanced approach that incorporates sustainable and optimal approaches for effective management of sustainable adaptation of existing commercial buildings.

About the Authors xi

Preface xiii

Part I Building Adaptation 1
Sara J. Wilkinson

Chapter 1 Defining Adaptation 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Terminology 4

1.3 The Significance of Building Adaptation 4

1.4 Decision-Making Issues in Building Adaptation 10

1.5 Decision Options and Levels of Adaptation 11

1.6 Adaptation and Different Land Uses 13

1.7 Conclusion 14

References 15

Chapter 2 Drivers and Barriers for Adaptation 18

2.1 Introduction 18

2.2 Building Life Cycle Theory 18

2.3 Building Performance Theory 20

2.4 Building Adaptation Theory and Sustainability 21

2.4.1 Social Factors 22

2.4.2 Environmental Factors 27

2.4.3 Cost and Economic Factors 30

2.5 Other Attributes Associated with Adaptation 34

2.5.1 Physical Attributes 34

2.5.2 Locational and Land Use Attributes 36

2.5.3 Legal Attributes 37

2.6 Conclusion 38

References 39

Chapter 3 Assessing Adaptation Using PAAM 42

3.1 Introduction 42

3.2 Preliminary Assessment 42

3.3 Principal Component Analysis 47

3.4 Preliminary Adaptation Assessment Model 49

3.5 Illustrative Case Study 54

3.5.1 Building Description 54

3.5.2 Assessing a Building for ‘Alterations’ Adaptation 54

3.6 Conclusion 56

References 58

Chapter 4 Sustainable Adaptation: A Case Study of the Melbourne CBD 59

4.1 Introduction 59

4.2 The Context for Adaptation 59

4.3 Typical Sustainability Measures Used in Commercial Building Adaptation 60

4.4 Sustainable Adaptation Case Studies 62

4.4.1 131 Queen Street 62

4.4.2 Alto Hotel (636 Bourke Street) 64

4.4.3 247 Flinders Lane (Ross House) 66

4.4.4 490 Spencer Street 68

4.4.5 500 Collins Street 70

4.4.6 406 Collins Street 73

4.4.7 182 Capel Street 75

4.4.8 115 Batman Street 77

4.4.9 385 Bourke Street 79

4.4.10 530 Collins Street 81

4.5 Comparative Analysis of Sustainable Adaptation Measures 82

4.5.1 Owners 83

4.5.2 Age 83

4.5.3 Location 84

4.5.4 Aesthetics 85

4.5.5 Location of Vertical Services 85

4.5.6 Existing Land Use 85

4.5.7 Floor Area 86

4.5.8 Street Frontage 86

4.5.9 Historic Listing 86

4.5.10 Number of Storeys 87

4.5.11 PCA Grade 87

4.5.12 Attachment to Other Buildings 88

4.5.13 Site Access 88

4.6 Conclusion 89

References 90

Part II Adaptive Reuse 93
Hilde Remøy

Chapter 5 Building Obsolescence and Reuse 95

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Conversion Research Worldwide 97

5.3 Building Lifespan and Obsolescence 100

5.3.1 Technical Lifespan 100

5.3.2 Functional Lifespan 101

5.3.3 Economic Lifespan 101

5.4 Obsolescence and Vacancy 102

5.5 Quality and Obsolescence: User-Based Property Assessment 104

5.6 The Physical Characteristics of Structurally Vacant Office Buildings 106

5.6.1 Structure and Floors 107

5.6.2 Floor Layout, Building Length and Depth 107

5.6.3 Façade 108

5.6.4 Stairs and Elevators 108

5.6.5 Location Characteristics 108

5.7 Selected Adaptive Reuse Projects 109

5.8 Conclusion 117

References 118

Chapter 6 Reuse versus Demolition 121

6.1 Introduction 121

6.2 Decision-Making Criteria 122

6.3 Tools, Scans and Instruments 123

6.3.1 The Transformation Meter 124

6.3.2 Programmatic Quick Scan 127

6.3.3 Architectural Value 127

6.3.4 The Architects’ Method 128

6.3.5 The ABT Method: An Instrument Developed in Practice 128

6.4 Decisions-Based on Financial Arguments 129

6.5 Durability and Sustainability 131

6.6 Conclusion 132

References 133

Chapter 7 Examples of Successful Adaptive Reuse 135

7.1 Introduction 135

7.2 Dutch Conversion Projects (Office to Residential) 136

7.2.1 ‘Stadhouder’ in Alphen aan den Rijn 137

7.2.2 ‘Lodewijk Staete’ in Appingedam 137

7.2.3 ‘Enka’ in Arnhem 138

7.2.4 ‘Schuttersveld’ in Delft 139

7.2.5 ‘Westplantsoen’ in Delft 139

7.2.6 ‘Wilhelminastaete’ in Diemen 140

7.2.7 ‘Granida’ in Eindhoven 141

7.2.8 ‘Residentie de Deel’ in Emmeloord 141

7.2.9 ‘Twentec’ in Enschede 142

7.2.10 ‘Eendrachtskade’ in Groningen 143

7.2.11 ‘Billiton’ in Den Haag 143

7.2.12 ‘Hof ter Hage’ in Den Haag 144

7.2.13 ‘Churchill Towers’ in Rijswijk 145

7.2.14 ‘Puntegale’ in Rotterdam 145

7.2.15 Westerlaan Tower in Rotterdam 146

7.3 Discussion 147

7.3.1 Data Analysis 147

7.3.2 Conversion Risks 147

7.3.3 Conversion Opportunities 150

7.3.4 Typology 152

7.3.5 Structure and Floors 152

7.3.6 Floor Layout, Building Length and Depth 153

7.3.7 Façade 153

7.3.8 Stairs and Elevators 154

7.3.9 Location 154

7.3.10 Building 155

7.4 Conclusion 157

References 158

Chapter 8 Preserving Cultural and Heritage Value 159

8.1 Introduction 159

8.2 Historic Heritage 159

8.3 The Value of Heritage 160

8.3.1 The Value of Place 160

8.3.2 Cultural Capital 161

8.3.3 Benefits of Heritage Conservation 162

8.4 Assessing Economic Value of Heritage 163

8.4.1 The Market Value of Heritage 163

8.4.2 Direct Market Value 164

8.4.3 Indirect Value 164

8.4.4 Indirect Value of Heritage Tourism 165

8.4.5 Heritage as a Source of Skills and Competencies 165

8.4.6 Private/Public Value 166

8.5 Heritage Value and Adaptation 166

8.6 Architectonic and Aesthetic Value 167

8.7 Experience Value 170

8.7.1 Familiar Ugliness 170

8.7.2 Cultural–Historical Value 170

8.7.3 Symbolic Value 171

8.7.4 Traumatic Experience Value 173

8.7.5 Value in Use 174

8.7.6 Intrinsic Value (Highest and Best Use) 174

8.7.7 Heritage as a Source of Social Value 176

8.8 Conclusion 180

References 181

Part III Adaptation Decision-Making and Optimisation 183
Craig Langston

Chapter 9 Identifying Adaptive Reuse Potential 187

9.1 Introduction 187

9.2 ARP Model 188

9.3 Obsolescence Rates 191

9.3.1 Physical Obsolescence 191

9.3.2 Economic Obsolescence 192

9.3.3 Functional Obsolescence 193

9.3.4 Technological Obsolescence 194

9.3.5 Social Obsolescence 194

9.3.6 Legal Obsolescence 195

9.3.7 Political Obsolescence 196

9.4 Case Study: GPO Building, Melbourne 197

9.5 Discussion 201

9.6 Conclusion 205

Note 206

References 206

Chapter 10 MCDA and Assessing Sustainability 208

10.1 Introduction 208

10.2 Background 209

10.3 A New Approach 211

10.3.1 Conceptual Framework 211

10.3.2 Value for Money 213

10.3.3 Quality of Life 214

10.3.4 Sustainability Risk 215

10.4 Life-Cost Planning 215

10.5 Case Study: Bond University Mirvac School of Sustainable Development (MSSD) Building, Gold Coast 217

10.5.1 Method 217

10.5.2 Return on Investment 218

10.5.3 Energy Usage 220

10.5.4 Functional Performance 220

10.5.5 Loss of Habitat 221

10.5.6 Sustainability Index 221

10.6 Discussion 223

10.7 Conclusion 227

Notes 227

References 228

Chapter 11 Modelling Building Performance Using iconCUR 230

11.1 Introduction 230

11.2 Visual MCDA 231

11.3 iconCUR Model 232

11.4 Case Study: 88 George Street, Sydney 235

11.4.1 Overview 235

11.4.2 Before Intervention 237

11.4.3 After Intervention 239

11.5 Discussion 241

11.6 Conclusion 247

Notes 247

References 248

Chapter 12 Designing for Future Adaptive Reuse 250

12.1 Introduction 250

12.2 Rationale 251

12.3 AdaptSTAR Framework 254

12.4 International Case Studies 259

12.4.1 1881 Heritage, Hong Kong SAR (PRC) 261

12.4.2 Peranakan Museum, City Hall (Singapore) 261

12.4.3 Corso Karlín, Prague (Czech Republic) 262

12.4.4 Arsenal de Metz, Metz (France) 262

12.4.5 The Candy Factory Lofts, Toronto (Canada) 263

12.4.6 Punta Della Dogana Contemporary Art Centre, Venice (Italy) 263

12.4.7 Andel’s Hotel, Lódz (Poland) 264

12.4.8 Sugar Warehouse Loft, Amsterdam (The Netherlands) 264

12.4.9 The Powerhouse, Long Island City (USA) 265

12.4.10 John Knox Church, Melbourne (Australia) 265

12.5 Discussion 266

12.6 Conclusion 268

References 268

Index 273