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Synthesis of Results From Scientific Drilling in the Indian Ocean

Synthesis of Results From Scientific Drilling in the Indian Ocean

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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 70.

The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), and its predecessor the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), have been an enormously successful international scientific effort aimed at understanding the interactions of the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, the crust and the mantle through the record of rocks, sediments and fluids in the ocean basins. More and more, ocean drilling is being seen as a critical part of long-term, integrated studies of the earth system. A large measure of this success stems from emphasis within this program on responsiveness to innovative ideas, technological developments, and long-range identification of global objectives. But how many of the scientific and technological achievements of ocean drilling are being effectively communicated to the broader earth science community? The JOIDES (Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling) organization, which is responsible for ODP, has recognized the need to publish results in a timely manner. These reports are organized in a leg-by-leg format, two volumes per leg, the Initial Reports and Scientific Results. There has been no formal mechanism within ODP, however, to compare and integrate results from several legs, to track the progress toward a given thematic objective, or to review our new understanding of the geologic history of previously unexplored regions. This volume is a response to the need to synthesize drilling results from the nine-leg Indian Ocean campaign (1987-1989).

R. A. Duncan, D. K. Rea, R. B. Kidd, U. von Rad, and J. K. Weissel xi

Acknowledgments xvi


1. The Plutonic Foundation of a Slow-Spreading Ridge
H. J. B. Dick, P. T. Robinson, and P. S. Meyer 1

2. Physical Properties and Logging of the Lower Oceanic Crust: Hole 735B
R. von Herzen, D. Goldberg, and M. Manghnani 41

3. The Influence of Mantle Plumes in the Generation of Indian Ocean Crust
D. Weis, W. M. White, F. A. Frey, R. A. Duncan, M. R. Fisk, J. Dehn, J. Ludden, A. Saunders, and M. Storey 57

4. The Life Cycle of Indian Ocean Hotspots
R. A. Duncan and M. Storey 91

5. Explosive Ocean Island Volcanism and Seamount Evolution in the Central Indian Ocean (Kerguelen Plateau)
P. R. Bitschene, J. Dehn, K. W. Mehl, and H.-U. Schmincke 105

6. Emplacement and Subsidence of Indian Ocean Plateaus and Submarine Ridges
M. F. Coffin 115

7. Extensional and Compressional Deformation of the Lithosphere in the Light of ODP Drilling in the Indian Ocean
J. K. Weissel, V. A. Childers, and G. D. Karner 127


8. Mesozoic Paleoenvironrnent of the Rifted Margin off NW Australia (ODP Legs 1221123)
U. von Rad, N. F. Exon, R. Boyd, and B. U. Hag 157

9. Tectonics and Sea-Level Changes Recorded in Late Triassic Sequences at Rifted Margins of Eastern and Western Tethys (Northwest Australia, Leg 122; Western Europe)
T. Dumont and U. Rohl 185

10. Sedimentary History of the Tethyan Margins of Eastern Gondwana During the Mesozoic
J. G. Ogg, F. M. Gradstein, J. A. Dumoulin, M. Sarti, and P. Bown 203


11. Middle and Late Cretaceous History of the Indian Ocean
M. A. Holrnes and D. K. Watkins 225

12. Aptian-Albian Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy of ODP Site 763 and the Correlation Between High- and Low Latitude Zonations
T. J. Bralower 245

13. Mid-Cretaceous Events in the Indian Ocean - a Key to Understanding the Global Picture
J. Thurow, H. J. Brumsack, R. Littke, P. Meyers, and J. Rullkiifter 253

14. The Cretaceousflertiary Boundary in the Southern Indian Ocean: Results from the Coring Operations of the Ocean Drilling Program
J. J. Pospichal and B. T. Huber 275

15. Accumulations of Organic Matter in Sediments of the Indian Ocean: A Synthesis of Results from Scientific Deep Sea Drilling
P. A. Meyers and G. R. Dickens 295

16. Cenozoic Carbonate Accumulation and Compensation Depth Changes in the Indian Ocean
L. C. Peterson, D. W. Murray, W. U. Ehrmann, and P. Hempel  311

17. Biosiliceous Sedimentation Patterns for the Indian Ocean During the last 45 Million Years
J. G. Baldauf, J. A. Barron, W. U. Ehrmann, P. Hempel, and D. Murray 335

18. Paleogene and Early Neogene Deep Water Paleoceanography of the Indian Ocean as Determined from Benthic Foraminifer Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Records
J. C. Zachos, D. K. Rea, K. Seto, R. Nomura, and N. Niitsuma 351

19. Delivery of Himalayan Sediment to the Northern Indian Ocean and its Relation to Global Climate, Sea Level, Uplift and Seawater Strontium
D. K. Rea 387

20. An Indian Ocean Framework for Paleoceanographic Synthesis Based on DSDP and ODP Results
R. B. Kidd, J. G. Baldauf, T. A. Davies, D. G. Jenkins, A. T. S. Ramsay, T. J. S. Sykes and S. W. Wise, Jr. 403

21. History of Antarctic Glaciation: An Indian Ocean Perspective
W. U. Ehrmann, M. J. liambrey, J. G. Baldauf, J. Barron, B. Larsen, A. Mackensen, S. W. Wise, Jr., and J.C. Zachos 423

22. Evolution and Variability of the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon: Evidence from the Western Arabian Sea Drilling Program
W. L. Prell, D.W. Murray, S. C. Clemens, and D. M. Anderson 447

1. Indian Ocean Plate Tectonic Reconstructions Since the Late Jurassic
J. Y. Royer, J. G. Sclater, R. L. Fisher, S. Cande, R. Schlich, M. Munschy, J. Dyrnent, and M. F. Coffin 471