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Description

System-level modeling of MEMS - microelectromechanical systems - comprises integrated approaches to simulate, understand, and optimize the performance of sensors, actuators, and microsystems, taking into account the intricacies of the interplay between mechanical and electrical properties, circuitry, packaging, and design considerations. Thereby, system-level modeling overcomes the limitations inherent to methods that focus only on one of these aspects and do not incorporate their mutual dependencies.

The book addresses the two most important approaches of system-level modeling, namely physics-based modeling with lumped elements and mathematical modeling employing model order reduction methods, with an emphasis on combining single device models to entire systems. At a clearly understandable and sufficiently detailed level the readers are made familiar with the physical and mathematical underpinnings of MEMS modeling. This enables them to choose the adequate methods for the respective application needs.

This work is an invaluable resource for all materials scientists, electrical engineers, scientists working in the semiconductor and/or sensor
industry, physicists, and physical chemists.
PART I: PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL FUNDAMENTALS

INTRODUCTION: ISSUES IN MICROSYSTEMS MODELING
The Need for System-Level Models for Microsystems
Coupled Multiphysics Microsystems
Multiscale Modeling and Simulation
System-Level Model Terminology
Automated Model Order Reduction Methods
Handling Complexity: Following the VLSI Paradigm
Analog Hardware Description Languages
General Attributes of System-Level Models
AHDL Simulation Capabilities
Composable Model Libraries
Parameter Extraction, Model Verification, and Model Validation
Conclusions

SYSTEM-LEVEL MODELING OF MEMS USING GENERALIZED KIRCHHOFFIAN NETWORKS - BASIC PRINCIPLES
Introduction and Motivation
Generalized Kirchhoffian Networks for the Tailored System-Level Modeling of Microsystems
Application 1: Physics-Based Electrofluidic Compact Model of an Electrostatically Actuated Micropump
Application 2: Electrostatically Actuated RF MEMS Switch

SYSTEM-LEVEL MODELING OF MEMS BY MEANS OF MODEL ORDER REDUCTION (MATHEMATICAL APPROXIMATIONS) - MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND
Introduction
Brief Overview
Mathematical Preliminaries
Numerical Algorithms
Linear System Theory
Basic Idea of Model Order Reduction
Moment-Matching Model Order Reduction
Gramian-Based Model Order Reduction
Stability, Passivity, and Error Estimation of the Reduced Model
Dealing with Nonzero Initial Condition
MOR for Second-Order, Nonlinear, Parametric systems
Conclusion and Outlook

ALGORITHMIC APPROACHES FOR SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION OF MEMS AND ASPECTS OF COSIMULATION
Introduction
Mathematical Structure of MEMS Models
General Approaches for System-Level Model Description
Numerical Methods for System-Level Simulation
Emerging Problems and Advanced Simulation Techniques
Conclusion

PART II: LUMPED ELEMENT MODELING METHOD FOR MEMS DEVICES

SYSTEM-LEVEL MODELING OF SURFACE MICROMACHINED BEAMLIKE ELECTROTHERMAL MICROACTUATORS
Introduction
Classification and Problem Description
Modeling
Solving
Case Study
Conclusion and Outlook

SYSTEM-LEVEL MODELING OF PACKAGING EFFECTS OF MEMS DEVICES
Introduction
Packaging Effects of MEMS and Their Impact on Typical MEMS Devices
System-Level Modeling
Conclusion and Outlook

MIXED-LEVEL APPROACH FOR THE MODELING OF DISTRIBUTED EFFECTS IN MICROSYSTEMS
General Concept of Finite Networks and Mixed-Level Models
Approaches for the Modeling of Squeeze Film Damping in MEMS
Mixed-Level Modeling of Squeeze Film Damping in MEMS
Evaluation
Conclusion

COMPACT MODELING OF RF-MEMS DEVICES
Introduction
Brief Description of the MEMS Compact Modeling Approach
RF-MEMS Multistate Attenuator Parallel Section
RF-MEMS Multistate Attenuator Series Section
Whole RF-MEMS Multistate Attenuator Network
Conclusions

PART III: MATHEMATICAL MODEL ORDER REDUCTION FOR MEMS DEVICES

MOMENT-MATCHING-BASED LINEAR MODEL ORDER REDUCTION FOR NONPARAMETRIC AND PARAMETRIC ELECTROTHERMAL MEMS MODELS
Introduction
Methodology for Applying Model Order Reduction to Electrothermal MEMS Models: Review of Achieved Results and Open Issues
MEMS Case Study - Silicon-Based Microhotplate
Application of the Reduced-Order Model for the Parameterization of the Controller
Application of Parametric Reduced-Order Model to the Extraction of Thin-Film Thermal Parameters
Conclusion and Outlook

PROJECTION-BASED NONLINEAR MODEL ORDER REDUCTION
Introduction
Problem Specification
Projection Principle and Evaluation Cost for Nonlinear Systems
Taylor Series Expansions
Trajectory Piecewise-Linear Method
Discrete Empirical Interpolation method
A Comparative Case Study of an MEMS Switch
Summary and Outlook

LINEAR AND NONLINEAR MODEL ORDER REDUCTION FOR MEMS ELECTROSTATIC ACTUATORS
Introduction
The Variable Gap Parallel Plate Capacitor
Model Order Reduction Methods
Example 1: IBM Scanning-Probe Data Storage Device
Example 2: Electrostatic Micropump Diaphragm
Results and Discussion
Conclusions

MODAL-SUPERPOSITION-BASED NONLINEAR MODEL ORDER REDUCTION FOR MEMS GYROSCOPES
Introduction
Model Order Reduction via Modal Superposition
MEMS Testcase: Vibratory Gyroscope
Flow Chart of the Nonlinear Model Order Reduction Procedure
Theoretical Background of Modal Superposition Technologies
Specific Algorithms of the Reduced Order Model Generation Pass
System Simulations of MEMS Based on Modal Superposition
Conclusion and Outlook

PART IV: MODELING OF ENTIRE MICROSYSTEMS

TOWARDS SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION OF ENERGY HARVESTING MODULES
Introduction
Design and Fabrication of the Piezoelectric Generator
Experimental Results
Modeling and Simulation
Maximum Power Point for the Piezoelectric Harvester
Conclusions and Outlook

APPLICATION OF REDUCED ORDER MODELS IN CIRCUIT-LEVEL DESIGN FOR RF MEMS DEVICES
Model Equations for RF MEMS Devices
Extraction of the Reduced Order Model
Application Examples
Conclusion and Outlook

SYSTEMC AMS AND COSIMULATION ASPECTS
Introduction
Heterogeneous Modeling with SystemC AMS
Case Study: Detection of Seismic Perturbations Using the Accelerometer
Conclusion

SYSTEM LEVEL MODELING OF ELECTROMECHANICAL SIGMA?DELTA MODULATORS FOR INERTIAL MEMS SENSORS

PART V: SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATIONS

3D PARAMETRIC-LIBRARY-BASED MEMS/IC DESIGN
About Schematic-Driven MEMS Modeling
Toward Manufacturable MEMS Designs
Micromirror Array Design Example
Conclusions

MOR FOR ANSYS
Introduction
Practice-Oriented Research during the Development of MOR for ANSYS
Programming Issues
Open Problems
Conclusion

SUGAR: A SPICE FOR MEMS
Introduction
SUGAR
SUGAR-Based Applications
Integration of SUGAR + COMSOL + SPICE + SIMULINK
Conclusion

MODEL ORDER REDUCTION IMPLEMENTATIONS IN COMMERCIAL MEMS DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
Introduction
IntelliSense's Design Methodology
Implementation of System Model Extraction in IntelliSuite
Benchmarks
Summary

REDUCED ORDER MODELING OF MEMS AND IC SYSTEMS - A PRACTICAL APPROACH
Introduction
The MEMS Development Environment
Modeling Requirements and Implementation within SoftMEMS Simulation Environment
Applications
Conclusions and Outlook

A WEB-BASED COMMUNITY FOR MODELING AND DESIGN OF MEMS
Introduction
The MEMS Modeling and Design Landscape
Leveraging Web-Based Communities
MEMS Modeling and Design Online
Encoding MEMS Behavioral Models
Conclusions and Outlook

INDEX