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Systems Analysis and Design, 6th Edition



Systems Analysis and Design, 6th Edition

Alan Dennis, Barbara Haley Wixom, Roberta M. Roth

ISBN: 978-1-119-13825-9 November 2014 448 Pages

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The 6th Edition of Systems Analysis and Design continues to offer a hands-on approach to SAD while focusing on the core set of skills that all analysts must possess. Building on their experience as professional systems analysts and award-winning teachers, authors Dennis, Wixom, and Roth capture the experience of developing and analyzing systems in a way that students can understand and apply.

With Systems Analysis and Design, 6th Edition, students will leave the course with experience that is a rich foundation for further work as a systems analyst.

Related Resources

Preface v


CHAPTER 1 The Systems Analyst and Information Systems Development 2

Introduction 3

The Systems Analyst 4

Systems Analyst Skills 4

Systems Analyst Roles 5

The Systems Development Life Cycle 6

Planning 9

Analysis 9

Design 10

Implementation 10

Project Identification and Initiation 11

System Request 13

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 15

Feasibility Analysis 18

Technical Feasibility 18

Economic Feasibility 19

Organizational Feasibility 25

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 28

Chapter Review 30

Appendix 1A—Detailed Economic Feasibility Analysis for Tune Source 33

CHAPTER 2 Project Selection and Management 35

Introduction 36

Project Selection 37

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 38

Creating the Project Plan 39

Project Methodology Options 40

Selecting the Appropriate Development Methodology 47

Estimating the Project Time Frame 49

Developing the Work Plan 50

Staffing the Project 55

Staffing Plan 55

Coordinating Project Activities 58

Managing and Controlling the Project 61

Refining Estimates 61

Managing Scope 63

Timeboxing 63

Managing Risk 64

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 65

Staffing the Project 66

Coordinating Project Activities 69

Chapter Review 70

Appendix 2A—The Function Point Approach 73

Appendix 2B—Project Management Tools: The Gantt Chart and PERT Chart 78

Gantt Chart 78

PERT Chart 78


CHAPTER 3 Requirements Determination 82

Introduction 82

The Analysis Phase 83

Requirements Determination 85

What Is a Requirement? 85

The Process of Determining Requirements 87

The Requirements Definition Statement 89

Requirements Elicitation Techniques 90

Requirements Elicitation in Practice 91

Interviews 91

Joint Application Development (JAD) 98

Questionnaires 102

Document Analysis 104

Observation 105

Selecting the Appropriate Techniques 107

Requirements Analysis Strategies 108

Problem Analysis 108

Root Cause Analysis 108

Duration Analysis 110

Activity-Based Costing 110

Informal Benchmarking 110

Outcome Analysis 111

Technology Analysis 111

Activity Elimination 112

Comparing Analysis Strategies 113

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 113

Eliciting and Analyzing Requirements 113

Requirements Definition 114

System Proposal 114

Chapter Review 116

CHAPTER 4 Use Case Analysis 120

Introduction 120

What is a Use Case? 122

The Use Case Concept in a Nutshell 122

Use Case Formats and Elements 123

Casual Use Case Format 123

Use Cases in Sequence 126

Fully Dressed Use Case Format 126

Applying Use Cases 128

Use Case Practical Tips 129

Use Cases and Functional Requirements 129

Use Cases and Testing 129

Creating Use Cases 130

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 144

Identifying the Major Use Cases 144

Elaborating on the Use Cases 145

Chapter Review 149

CHAPTER 5 Process Modeling 153

Introduction 153

Data Flow Diagrams 154

Reading Data Flow Diagrams 154

Elements of Data Flow Diagrams 156

Using Data Flow Diagrams to Define Business Processes 158

Process Descriptions 162

Creating Data Flow Diagrams 162

Creating the Context Diagram 164

Creating Data Flow Diagram Fragments 165

Creating the Level 0 Data Flow Diagram 166

Creating Level 1 Data Flow Diagrams (and Below) 166

Validating the Data Flow Diagrams 173

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 177

Creating the Context Diagram 177

Creating Data Flow Diagram Fragments 178

Creating the Level 0 Data Flow Diagram 178

Creating Level 1 Data Flow Diagrams (and Below) 178

Validating the Data Flow Diagrams 183

Chapter Review 184

CHAPTER 6 Data Modeling 187

Introduction 187

The Entity Relationship Diagram 188

Reading an Entity Relationship Diagram 188

Elements of an Entity Relationship Diagram 189

The Data Dictionary and Metadata 193

Creating an Entity Relationship Diagram 196

Building Entity Relationship Diagrams 196

Advanced Syntax 199

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 200

Validating an Entity Relationship Diagram 203

Design Guidelines 203

Normalization 206

Balancing Entity Relationship Diagrams with Data Flow Diagrams 206

Chapter Review 208

Appendix 6A: Normalizing the Data Model 211


CHAPTER 7 Moving into Design 218

Introduction 218

Transition from Requirements to Design 219

System Acquisition Strategies 221

Custom Development 223

Packaged Software 224

Outsourcing 225

Influences on the Acquisition Strategy 228

Business Need 228

In-House Experience 229

Project Skills 229

Project Management 230

Time Frame 230

Selecting an Acquisition Strategy 230

Alternative Matrix 231

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 233

Chapter Review 234

CHAPTER 8 Architecture Design 237

Introduction 237

Elements of an Architecture Design 238

Architectural Components 238

Client–Server Architectures 239

Client–Server Tiers 240

Server-Based Architecture 242

Mobile Application Architecture 243

Advances in Architecture Configurations 244

Comparing Architecture Options 245

Creating an Architecture Design 246

Operational Requirements 246

Performance Requirements 247

Security Requirements 249

Cultural and Political Requirements 254

Designing the Architecture 256

Hardware and Software Specification 258

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 260

Creating an Architecture Design 260

Hardware and Software Specifi cation 261

Chapter Review 262

CHAPTER 9 User Interface Design 265

Introduction 266

The Usability Concept 266

Principles for User Interface Design 267

Layout 267

Content Awareness 269

Aesthetics 270

Usage Level 270

Consistency 272

Minimize User Effort 273

Special Issues of Touch Screen Interface Design 273

User Interface Design Process 274

Understand the Users 275

Organize the Interface 277

Defi ne Standards 279

Interface Design Prototyping 280

Interface Evaluation/Testing 283

Navigation Design 286

Basic Principles 286

Menu Tips 287

Message Tips 289

Input Design 292

Basic Principles Input Tips 294

Input Validation 296

Output Design 296

Basic Principles 296

Types of Outputs 298

Media 300

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 301

Understand the Users 301

Organize the Interface 301

Defi ne Standards 303

Interface Template Design 303

Develop Prototypes 305

Interface Evaluation/Testing 305

Chapter Review 306

CHAPTER 10 Program Design 311

Introduction 312

Moving from Logical to Physical Process Models 312

Th e Physical Data Flow Diagram 312

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 315

Designing Programs 316

Structure Chart 319

Syntax 320

Building the Structure Chart 322

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 324

Design Guidelines 328

Program Specifi cation 335

Syntax 335

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 339

Chapter Review 341

CHAPTER 11 Data Storage Design 346

Introduction 347

Data Storage Formats 347

Files 348

Databases 350

Selecting a Storage Format 354

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 356

Moving from Logical to Physical Data Models 357

The Physical Entity Relationship Diagram 357

Revisiting the CRUD Matrix 359

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 360

Optimizing Data Storage 362

Optimizing Storage Efficiency 363

Optimizing Access Speed 364

Estimating Storage Size 369

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 371

Chapter Review 373


CHAPTER 12 Moving into Implementation 378

Introduction 378

Managing the Programming Process 379

Assigning Programming Tasks 379

Coordinating Activities 380

Managing the Schedule 381

Testing 381

Test Planning 382

Unit Tests 384

Integration Tests 386

System Tests 386

Acceptance Tests 386

Developing Documentation 388

Types of Documentation 389

Designing Documentation Structure 389

Writing Documentation Topics 391

Identifying Navigation Terms 392

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 394

Managing Programming 394

Testing 394

Developing User Documentation 396

Chapter Review 397

CHAPTER 13 Transition to the New System 400

Introduction 400

Making the Transition to the New System 401

The Migration Plan 402

Selecting the Conversion Strategy 402

Preparing a Business Contingency Plan 406

Preparing the Technology 408

Preparing People for the New System 408

Understanding Resistance to Change 409

Revising Management Policies 410

Assessing Costs and Benefits 411

Motivating Adoption 412

Enabling Adoption: Training 415

Postimplementation Activities 418

System Support 418

System Maintenance 419

Project Assessment 421

Applying the Concepts at Tune Source 423

Implementation Process 423

Preparing the People 423

Postimplementation Activities 424

Chapter Review 424

CHAPTER 14 The Movement to Objects (Online Only) 427

You can access this chapter at


  • There has been an extensive reworking of Chapter 9, User Interface Design: an addition of important current user interface concepts, including usability, user experience (UX), issues of designing for touch screen interfaces, and several additional user interface design tools, including site maps, wireframe diagrams, and wire flow diagrams.
  • A series of tutorial lessons now available to teach students how to use and apply the Visible Analyst™ computer-assisted software engineering (CASE) software to a simple systems development project scenario.
  • Wiley has partnered with Visible Analyst to give students a discounted price for Visible Analyst software, an intuitive modeling tool for all aspects of traditional or object-oriented systems analysis and design. Students simply visit and enter their Key Code found within their text. Students who buy a new print text or E-text will receive one-third off the price of a downloadable edition of the software with a 6-month license.  The software includes tutorials, how-to videos, and a sample project.
  • Focus on doing Systems Analysis and Design: After presenting the how and what of each major technique, the text guides students through practice problems and invites them to use the technique in a project.
  • Project-based approach: Topics are presented in the order in which an analyst would encounter them in a typical project.
  • Real-world focus with many examples: Several running cases serve as templates that students can apply to their own work. In addition, Concepts in Action examples describe how real companies succeeded (and failed) in performing Systems Analysis and Design activities.
  • Provides a structured approach to Systems Analysis and Design while also integrating object-oriented techniques as appropriate, for example, the development of use cases is presented as the first step in process modeling.