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Teaching How to Learn in a What-to-Learn Culture



Teaching How to Learn in a What-to-Learn Culture

Kathleen R. Hopkins

ISBN: 978-0-470-58526-9 March 2010 Jossey-Bass 176 Pages

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Practical ideas for teaching students the skills they need to really learn

This vital teachers' resource answers such questions as "Can intelligence be developed? Do teacher expectations shape student learning? How can I make learning 'stick' for my students?" Drawing from theory and research in learning, this book offers clear, practical guidance along with inspirational ideas to show how teachers can enable students to gain both the cognitive competence and confidence needed to succeed academically.

  • Offers techniques for students to develop their reading, writing, and math abilities
  • Provides suggestions for helping students build perseverance and diligent work habits
  • Helps cultivate students' reasoning skills for problem solving
  • Includes ideas for teachers to improve their students' verbal and written skills

The book applies to any and all learners, including special needs students, and is richly illustrated with stories, activities, and examples from across the curricula.

About the Author vii

About the National Institute for Learning Development ix

Foreword xi

Introduction xv

1 The Intelligence Dilemma 1

Opening the Skylight 3

A Conceptual Understanding of Intelligence 4

Defining Intelligence 5

Theory One: Cast Building 5

Theory Two: Brick Building 5

Theory Three: Mosaic Model 6

Classroom Activity 8

The Root of Intelligence 10

Intellectual Potential? 10

Mediated Learning 11

Practical Application 15

The First Fable 15

Prepare the Lesson 16

Project the Text of the Fable 16

Build Intelligence 17

Develop Cognitive Competence 17

Reflection 19

2 A Way Out of the Pressure Cooker 21

The Pressures are Real 24

A Survey 25

Identify the Pressures 26

Find the Way Out 27

The Need for Meaningfulness 28

Surface Versus Meaningful Knowledge 29

The Case for Cognitive Modifiability 29

Practical Applications 31

Reflection 34

3 What Every Teacher Needs 37

A Survey 42

Love of Reading 42

Intellectual Curiosity 43

Cultural Literacy 45

Love of Learning 46

Competence and Confidence 47

Reflection 47

4 The Big Picture 51

Analysis or Synthesis? 54

Back to the Classroom 57

The Power of the Lie 58

Rethinking Those Rows 58

Real-Life Challenges 59

The Case for Handwriting 60

An Exercise 61

Practical Application 62

Reflection 64

5 Setting Students Free 67

Ratcheting Up, Not Dumbing Down 69

The First Floor 71

The Second Floor 71

The Third Floor 71

Putting in the Skylight 72

An Interesting Lesson 74

Practical Applications 74

Meaningful Connections 76

Realistic Dreams 78

Reflection 79

6 The Power of Oral Language 81

The Socratic Method 83

The Research 84

Practical Applications 87

A New Kind of Learner 90

Habits of Mind 92

Reflection 94

7 Moving Beyond Memorization 95

Memory Systems 97

Memory Types 101

Practical Application 105

The Text 105

The Lesson 106

Reflection 109

8 Those Inner Voices 111

Inner Speech 115

Executive Function 117

Active Working Memory 118

Practical Application #1 118

The Case for Grammar 121

Practical Application #2 122

Reflection 122

9 Potential or Propensity? 125

Potential 127

Propensity 128

Building Confidence 129

Practical Applications 130

Mediating a Feeling of Competence 131

Practical Application #1 132

More Practical Applications 135

Reflection 136

10 Rediscovering the Joy 139

What is Your Skylight? 142

Where are the Scholars? 142

The Power of the Fable 143

Cultural Relevancy 143

Struggling Learners 144

Consider Your Climate 144

Watch Your Language! 145

Finding Margin 146

One More Fable 147

Professional Joy Restorers 148

A Final Word 149

References 151

Index 153