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Temporary Structure Design

Temporary Structure Design

Christopher Souder

ISBN: 978-1-118-90558-6

Nov 2014

456 pages

In Stock

$115.00

Description

A comprehensive guide to temporary structures in construction projects

Temporary Structure Design is the first book of its kind, presenting students and professionals with authoritative coverage of the major concepts in designing temporary construction structures. Beginning with a review of statistics, it presents the core topics needed to fully comprehend the design of temporary structures: strength of materials; types of loads on temporary structures; scaffolding design; soil properties and soil loading; soldier beam, lagging, and tiebacks; sheet piling and strutting; pressure and forces on formwork and falsework; concrete formwork design; falsework; bracing and guying; trestles and equipment bridges; and the support of existing structures.

Temporary structures during construction include scaffolding, formwork, shoring, ramps, platforms, earth-retaining structures, and other construction structures that are not part of the permanent installation. These structures are less regulated and monitored than most other parts of the construction process, even though they are often supporting tons of steel or concrete—and the safety of all workers on the site depends on these structures to perform as designed. Unfortunately, most tragic failures occur during construction and are usually the result of improperly designed, constructed, and/or maintained temporary structures. Temporary Structure Design fills an important need in the literature by providing a trusted, comprehensive guide to designing temporary construction structures.

  • Serves as the first book to provide a design-oriented approach to the design of temporary structures
  • Includes coverage of the various safety considerations inherent in temporary structure design and construction
  • Provides information on estimating cost and schedules for these specialized structures
  • Covers formwork and falsework, as well as personnel protection, production support, environmental protection, and foundational structures

If you're a student or a professional working in the field of construction or structural engineering, Temporary Structure Design is a must-have resource you'll turn to again and again.

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR xiii

PREFACE xv

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xvii

1 Statics Review 1

1.1. Statics Review 1

1.2. Units of Measure 1

1.2.1. Common Units of Measure 2

1.3. Statics 3

1.3.1. CentroidsCenter of Gravity 4

1.3.2. Properties of Sections 7

2 Strength of Materials Review 18

2.1. Stress 18

2.1.1. Normal Stress 18

2.1.2. Bending Stress 19

2.1.3. Shear Stress 19

2.1.4. Horizontal Shear Stress 20

2.1.5. Modulus of Elasticity 22

2.2. Bending Moments 22

2.2.1. Maximum Bending Moments 22

2.2.2. Maximum Shear 23

2.2.3. Law of Superposition 23

2.3. Materials 24

2.3.1. Factors of Safety 24

2.3.2. Grades of Steel 24

2.3.3. Compact Beam 25

2.3.4. Wood 26

2.4. Deflection 27

2.5. Shear and Moment Diagrams 28

2.6. Beam Design 34

2.6.1. Combined Stress 41

3 Types of Loads on Temporary Structures 45

3.1. Supports and Connections on Temporary Structures 45

3.1.1. Forces and Loads on Temporary Structures 47

3.1.2. Materials—How Different Materials Create Different Forces 48

4 Scaffolding Design 59

4.1. Regulatory 59

4.2. Types of Scaffolding 59

4.3. Loading on Scaffolding 61

4.4. Scaffolding Factors of Safety 62

4.5. Scaffold Components 62

4.5.1. Planking 62

4.5.2. Bearers (Lateral Supports) 62

4.5.3. Runners 62

4.5.4. Posts 63

4.5.5. OSHA 63

4.6. Scaffold Design 63

4.6.1. Securing Scaffolding to the Structure 69

4.6.2. Hanging Scaffold 69

5 Soil Properties and Soil Loading 75

5.1. Soil Properties 75

5.1.1. Standard Penetration Test and Log of Test Borings 77

5.1.2. Unit Weights above and below the Water Table 78

5.1.3. Testing 81

5.2. Soil Loading 81

5.2.1. Soil Mechanics 81

5.2.2. Active Soil Pressure and Coefficient 82

5.2.3. Soil Pressure Theories 83

5.2.4. Soil Pressure Examples Using Rankine Theory 85

5.2.5. Soil Pressures Using State and Federal Department Standards 91

6 Soldier Beam, Lagging, and Tiebacks 104

6.1. System Description and Units of Measure 104

6.1.1. BeamsPiles 104

6.1.2. Lagging 105

6.1.3. Tiebacks 105

6.2. Materials 105

6.2.1. Steel AISC 105

6.2.2. Wood Species—National Design Specifications (NDS) for Wood Construction 106

6.2.3. Lagging 108

6.2.4. Soldier Beam Design 112

6.2.5. Tiebacks and Soil Nails 121

7 Sheet Piling and Strutting 130

7.1. Sheet Piling Basics 130

7.1.1. Materials 130

7.1.2. System Description and Unit of Measure 130

7.1.3. Driving Equipment 133

8 Pressure and Forces on Formwork and Falsework 155

8.1. Properties of Materials 155

8.1.1. Unit Weights 155

8.1.2. Forces from Concrete Placement 157

9 Concrete Formwork Design 178

9.1. General Requirements 178

9.1.1. Concrete Specifications 178

9.1.2. Types and Costs of Forms in Construction 179

9.2. Formwork Design 180

9.2.1. Bending, Shear, and Deflection 180

9.2.2. Form Design Examples Using All-Wood Materials with Snap Ties or Coil Ties 191

9.2.3. Formwork Charts 199

9.2.4. Estimating Concrete Formwork 219

9.3. Conclusion 228

10 Falsework Design 229

10.1. Falsework Risks 229

10.1.1. Falsework Accidents 230

10.1.2. Falsework Review Process 233

10.1.3. Falsework Design Criteria 235

10.1.4. Load Paths for Falsework Design 236

10.1.5. Falsework Design Using Formwork Charts 242

10.1.6. Bridge Project 262

11 Bracing and Guying 267

11.1. Rebar Bracing and Guying 268

11.2. Form Bracing with Steel Pipe and Concrete Deadmen 269

11.2.1. Life Application of Friction Forces 278

11.3. Rebar Guying on Highway Projects 279

11.4. Alternate Anchor Method 289

12 Trestles and Equipment Bridges 300

12.1. Basic Composition of a Standard Trestle 300

12.1.1. Foundation—Pipe, H Pile, and Wide-Flange and Composite Piles 301

12.1.2. Cap Beams—Wide-Flange Beams with Stiffeners 301

12.1.3. StringersGirders—Wide-Flange Beams Braced Together 303

12.1.4. Lateral Bracing 303

12.1.5. Decking—Timber or Precast Concrete Panels 306

12.1.6. Environmental Concerns 308

12.1.7. Stringer Design 325

12.1.8. Star Pile Design and Properties 340

12.2. Other Projects Utilizing Methods of Access 341

12.3. Conclusion 343

13 Support of Existing Structures 344

13.1. Basic Building Materials 345

13.1.1. Example 13.1 Pipe Unit Weight 346

13.1.2. Example 13.2 Existing Water Treatment Plant 347

13.1.3. Example 13.3 Temporary Pipe Supports 354

Appendixes 369

Appendix 1: Steel Beams (AISC) 371

Appendix 2: Steel Pipe 391

Appendix 3: H Pile (AISC) 393

Appendix 4: Allowable Buckling Stress 395

Appendix 5: Sheet Pile (Skyline) 397

Appendix 6: Wood Properties 401

Appendix 7: Formwork Charts (Williams) 404

Appendix 8: Form Hardware Values (Williams) 412

Appendix 9: Aluminum Beams (Aluma) 422

INDEX 425