List of Contributors.
1 Introduction to epidemiologic research methods (Glyn Lewis).
1.1 What is epidemiology?
1.2 Causation in medicine.
1.3 Causal inference.
1.4 The future for psychiatric epidemiology.
2 Analysis of categorical data: The odds ratio as a measure of association and beyond (Garrett M. Fitzmaurice and Caitlin Ravichandran).
2.2 Inference for a single proportion.
2.3 Analysis of 2 x 2 contingency tables.
2.4 Analysis of sets of 2 x 2 contingency tables.
2.5 Logistic regression.
2.6 Advanced topics.
2.7 Concluding remarks.
2.8 Further reading.
3 Genetic epidemiology (Stephen V. Faraone, Stephen J. Glatt and Ming T. Tsuang).
3.2 The chain of psychiatric genetic research.
3.3 Psychiatric genetics and psychiatric epidemiology.
4 Examining gene–environment interplay in psychiatric disorders (Judith Allardyce and Jim van Os).
4.2 The process of genetic epidemiology.
4.3 Gene–environment interplay takes different forms.
4.4 Gene–environment correlation.
4.5 Gene–environment interaction.
4.6 Measurement of genotype, environmental exposure and pathological phenotype.
4.7 Models of GxE.
4.8 Which scale should we use to measure GxE?
4.9 Study designs for the detection of GxE.
4.10 Threats to the validity of epidemiological GxE studies.
4.11 Epigenetic mechanisms.
5 Reliability (Patrick E. Shrout).
5.2 The reliability coefficient.
5.3 Designs for estimating reliability.
5.4 Statistical remedies for low reliability.
5.5 Reliability theory and binary judgements.
5.6 Reliability statistics: General.
5.7 Other reliability statistics.
5.8 Summary and conclusions.
6 Moderators and mediators: Towards the genetic and environmental bases of psychiatric disorders (Helena Chmura Kraemer).
6.2 Current methodological barriers.
6.3 Moderation, mediation and other ways in which risk factors 'work together'.
6.5 Beyond moderators and mediators.
7 Validity: Definitions and applications to psychiatric research (Jill M. Goldstein, Sara Cherkerzian and John C. Simpson).
7.2 Validity of a construct.
7.3 Validity of the relationships between variables.
8 Use of register data for psychiatric epidemiology in the Nordic countries (Jouko Miettunen, Jaana Suvisaari, Jari Haukka and Matti Isohanni).
8.2 Registers for use in psychiatric research.
8.3 Register research in Denmark.
8.4 Register research in Finland.
8.5 Register research in Norway.
8.6 Register research in Sweden.
9 An introduction to mental health services research (Anna Fernandez, Alejandra Pinto-Meza, Antoni Serrano-Blanco, Jordi Alonso and Josep Maria Haro).
9.2 What is mental health services research?
9.3 A framework for mental health services research.
9.4 Key concepts in mental health services research.
9.5 Examples of mental health services research studies.
10 The pharmacoepidemiology of psychiatric medications (Philip S. Wang, Alan M. Brookhart, Christine Ulbricht and Sebastian Schneeweiss).
10.2 Overview of psychopharmacoepidemiology.
10.3 Sources of data.
10.4 Examples of recent psychopharmacoepidemiologic studies.
11 Peering into the future of psychiatric epidemiology (Michaeline Bresnahan, Ezra Susser, Dana March and Bruce Link).
11.2 Levels of causation: A historical overview.
11.3 Levels of causation.
11.4 Causation over (life) time.
11.6 Framing the future.
12 Studying the natural history of psychopathology (William W. Eaton).
12.5 Methodological concepts for studying the natural history of psychopathology.
13 Symptom scales and diagnostic schedules in adult psychiatry (Jane M. Murphy).
13.2 North American instruments for epidemiological research.
13.3 North American instruments for psychiatric services and primary care.
13.4 European instruments for psychiatric services and primary care.
13.5 European instruments for epidemiological research.
14 The National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) and its extensions (Ronald C. Kessler).
14.2 The baseline NCS.
14.3 The NCS follow-up survey (NCS-2).
14.4 The NCS replication survey (NCS-R).
14.5 The NCS-R adolescent supplement (NCS-A).
14.6 The WHO WMH Surveys.
15 Experimental epidemiology (John R. Geddes).
15.2 Limitations of non-randomised evidence.
15.3 RCTs: The translation of the experimental design into the real world.
15.4 Importance and control of systematic error or bias.
15.5 Importance and control of random error and noise.
15.6 Reporting the results of clinical trials—the CONSORT statement.
15.7 Different clinical questions will prioritise control of different threats to validity and confidence.
15.8 The classification of RCTs.
15.9 Effectiveness trials in schizophrenia.
15.10 Department of Veterans Affairs co-operative study on the cost-effectiveness of Olanzapine (Rosenheck).
15.11 The clinical antipsychotic trials of intervention effectiveness (CATIE) study.
15.12 Cost utility of the latest antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia study (CUtLASS 1).
15.13 European first-episode schizophrenia trial (EUFEST).
15.14 The size and cost of experimental studies in psychiatry.
15.15 Clinical trials in the future.
16 Epidemiology of Schizophrenia (William W. Eaton, Chuan-Yu Chen and Evelyn J. Bromet).
16.3 The burden of schizophrenia.
16.4 Natural history.
16.5 Demographic correlates.
16.6 Social risk factors.
16.7 Biological risk factors.
17 Epidemiology of depressive disorders (Deborah S. Hasin, Miriam C. Fenton and Myrna M. Weissman).
17.2 Major depression.
18 Epidemiology of anxiety disorders (Ewald Horwath, Felicia Gould and Myrna M. Weissman).
18.2 Anxiety disorders.
18.3 Panic disorder.
18.5 Social phobia.
18.6 Generalised anxiety disorder.
18.7 Obsessive–compulsive disorder.
18.8 Anxiety and affective disorders and mass disasters.
18.9 Future developments.
19 Epidemiology of bipolar disorder in adults and children (Kathleen R. Merikangas and Mauricio Tohen).
19.2 Epidemiology of bipolar disorder.
19.3 Patterns of comorbidity of bipolar disorder.
19.4 Risk Factors.
19.5 Future directions.
20 Epidemiology of eating disorders (Tracey D. Wade, Anna Keski-Rahkonen and James I. Hudson).
20.2 Case definition.
20.3 Major prevalence studies.
20.4 Incidence studies.
20.6 Mortality from eating disorders.
20.7 Risk factors.
20.8 Future directions.
21 Epidemiology of alcohol use, abuse and dependence (Deborah A. Dawson, Ralph W. Hingson and Bridget F. Grant).
21.2 Population estimates of per capita consumption.
21.3 Survey-based estimates of the prevalence of drinking.
21.4 Alcohol-related mortality and morbidity.
21.5 Alcohol and injury.
21.6 Alcohol and chronic disease.
21.7 Diagnostic classification of alcohol use disorders.
21.8 Population estimates, prevalence, incidence and natural course of alcohol use disorders.
21.9 Comorbidity of DSM-IV alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric disorders.
22 Epidemiology of illicit drug use disorders (Wilson M. Compton, Marsha F. Lopez, Kevin P. Conway and Yonette F. Thomas).
22.2 Drug consumption.
22.4 Rates of DSM-IV abuse and dependence.
22.5 Global rates of drug use disorders.
22.6 Comorbidities with psychiatric conditions.
22.7 Genetic epidemiology.
22.8 Future opportunities.
23 The epidemiology of personality disorders: Findings, methods and concepts (Michael J. Lyons, Beth A. Jerskey and Margo R. Genderson).
23.2 Substantive findings.
23.3 Course, prognosis and developmental issues.
23.4 Treated prevalence.
23.5 Prevalence of specific personality disorders.
23.6 Antisocial personality disorder.
23.7 Conceptual issues.
23.8 Models of personality disorder.
23.9 Methodological issues.
23.10 Future directions.
24 The epidemiology of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents (Kathleen Ries Merikangas and Erin F. Nakamura).
24.2 Magnitude of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents.
24.3 Correlates and risk factors.
24.4 Service patterns and impact.
25 Epidemiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Stephen V. Faraone).
25.2 Prevalence of ADHD.
25.3 Pharmacoeconomics of ADHD.
25.4 Comorbid psychiatric disorders.
25.5 Demographic risk factors.
25.6 Genetic risk factors.
25.7 Environmental risk factors for ADHD.
25.8 Summary and conclusions.
25.9 Future directions.
26 The epidemiology of autism (Gregory S. Liptak).
26.3 Definition and diagnosis.
26.4 Natural history.
26.6 Risk factors.
26.7 Genetic factors.
26.8 Public health impact.
26.9 Associations and causal factors.
26.10 Future directions.
27 Mental illness, women, mothers and their children (Kathryn M. Abel and Vera A. Morgan).
27.2 The epidemiology of mental illness in women of reproductive age.
27.3 Fertility and fecundity in women with mental illness.
27.4 Maternal mental illness at the time of conception and during pregnancy.
27.5 Gene–environment interactions and offspring outcomes.
27.6 Obstetric complications and risk of adult onset mental disorder in offspring.
27.7 Parental condition.
27.8 Motherhood and perinatal mental illness.
27.9 Designing studies examining the relationship between maternal mental illness and outcomes for their children.
28 Epidemiology of suicide and attempted suicide(Dianne Currier and Maria A. Oquendo).
28.3 Prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide.
28.4 Risk factors for suicide and attempted suicide.
28.5 Protective factors.
29 Epidemiology and geriatric psychiatry (Celia F. Hybels and Dan G. Blazer).
29.2 Issues of case identification.
29.3 The distribution of cases.
29.4 Aetiological studies.
29.5 Outcome studies.
29.6 Historical trends in the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in late life.
29.7 Use of health care services.
30 Recent epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in Japan (Masayoshi Kawai, Kenji J. Tsuchiya and Nori Takei).
30.3 Affective disorders.
30.4 Autism and autism spectrum disorder.
31 Epidemiology of migration and serious mental illness: The example of migrants to Europe (Monica Charalambides, Craig Morgan and Robin M. Murray).
31.2 Defining the constructs.
31.3 High rates of psychosis in migrants: A genuine finding or methodological artefact?
31.4 Possible explanations.
31.5 Biological considerations.
31.6 Cannabis use.
31.7 Adverse social experiences.
32 Epidemiology of migration substance use disorder in Latin American populations and migration to the United States (Marıa Elena Medina-Mora, Guilherme Borges, Tania Real and Jorge Villatoro).
32.2 Definitions: What do we understand by migration?
32.3 Countries of origin: Social, political and other reasons that trigger migration.
32.4 Living conditions of migrants in the United States.
32.5 Alcohol and drug use in countries of origin and receiving communities.
32.6 Dependence and treatment rates.
32.7 The process of migrating.
32.8 Migration, substance use and access to services.
32.9 Returning migrants and families left behind.
33 Early detection and intervention as approaches for preventing schizophrenia (Ming T. Tsuang, William S. Stone, Margo Genderson and Michael Lyons).
33.2 Modelling genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity.
33.3 Defining a syndrome of liability using cognitive and clinical characteristics of relatives.
33.4 Gene-based vs. genome-based research.
33.5 Future directions.
33.6 Clinical implications.