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The Building Environment: Active and Passive Control Systems, 3rd Edition

Vaughn Bradshaw

ISBN: 978-1-118-00813-3 September 2010 592 Pages


Get the updated guide to active and passive control systems for buildings.

To capitalize on today's rapidly evolving, specialized technologies, architects, designers, builders, and contractors work together to plan the mechanical and electrical equipment that controls the indoor environment of a building. The Building Environment: Active and Passive Control Systems, Third Edition helps you take advantage of design innovations and construction strategies that maximize the comfort, safety, and energy efficiency of buildings.

From active HVAC systems to passive methods, lighting to on-site power generation, this updated edition explains how to strategically plan for and incorporate effective, efficient systems in today's buildings. It covers the underlying thermal theories and thermodynamic principles and focuses on design that enhances the building environment and minimizes the impact on the world's environment. The Building Environment goes beyond the ABCs of HVAC and covers:

  • On-site power generation, including wind turbines, solar photovoltaic cells, fuel cells, and more.
  • Plumbing systems, fire protection, signal systems, conveying systems, and architectural acoustics.
  • Procedures and/or formulas for performing heat loss, heat gain, and energy use calculations, determining the rate of heat flow, calculating solar energy utilization, doing load calculations, and more.
  • Details on the latest building codes and standards references.
  • New information on the sustainable design of building systems and energy efficiency, including new technologies.
  • The latest thinking and data on a building's impact on the environment, indoor air quality, and "sick building syndrome."
  • Design economics, including the payback period, life-cycle cost, comparative value analysis, and building commissioning.
  • A practical on-the-job tool for architects, designers, builders, engineers, contractors, and other specialists, this Third Edition is also a great reference for architecture students who will lead tomorrow's design teams.


Preface ix

Introduction xiii


Chapter 1 Human Comfort and Health Requirements 3

Human Physiology 5

Heat Balance 7

Metabolism 13

Clothing 14

Environmental Factors 16

Thermal Comfort Standards 21

Temperature and Humidity Extremes 28

Air Quality and Quantity 30

Chapter 2 Thermodynamic Principles 39

Heat Transfer 40

Psychrometrics 47

Chapter 3 Thermal Dynamics of Buildings 57

Heat Gain and Loss 58

Thermal Mass Dynamics 69

Moisture Problems 72

Chapter 4 Load Calculations 79

Heating and Cooling Loads 80

Selecting Design Temperature and Humidity Conditions 85

Solar Gain Through Fenestration 87

Heat Transmission Through the Building Envelope 95

Internal Loads 100

Outside Air 104

Annual Energy Use Calculations 106


Chapter 5 A Building’s Impact on the Environment 119

Ozone Depletion 119

Global Warming 120

Energy Conservation 122

Green Design/Sustainable Design 122

Case Study 134

Chapter 6 Active HVAC Systems 139

Central Heat Sources 145

Central Cooling Sources 161

Distribution Media 171

Delivery Devices 184

Localized Exhaust Systems 197

Heat Recovery 199

Thermal Storage 200

Automatic Controls 203

Noise and Vibration 205

District Heating and Cooling 206

Chapter 7 Passive Methods 213

Load Reductions 214

Passive Solar Heating 235

Passive Cooling 241

Case Study 246


Chapter 8 Lighting 253

Principles of Illumination 257

Electrical Lighting 261

Daylighting 276

Emergency Lighting 285

Outdoor Lighting 285

Chapter 9 Normal Electrical Service 289

Loads 292

Service Entrance 296

Interior Distribution 302

Battery Power Supply 308

Utility Demand Management 310

Chapter 10 On-Site Power Generation 315

Thermal-Source Generation 316

Wind Turbines 323

Solar Photovoltaic Cells 326

Hydropower 328

Chapter 11 Special Systems 335

Signal Systems 335

Conveying Systems 340


Chapter 12 Plumbing Systems 355

Water Supply 356

Plumbing Fixtures 360

Sanitary Piping 370

Stormwater Drainage 375

Chapter 13 Fire Protection 383

Detection and Alarm Systems 384

Exits: Means of Egress 389

Compartmentation 391

Smoke Control 393

Fire Suppression 399


Chapter 14 Architectural Acoustics 411

Sound Theory 412

Room Acoustics 415

Sound Isolation 421

Chapter 15 Building Commissioning 433

The Commissioning Plan 434

Applicable Systems and Equipment 435

Chapter 16 Design Economics 437

Payback Period 438

Life-Cycle Cost 440

Rate of Return 446

Comparative Value Analysis 447

Other Considerations 448

Appendix 453

Index 565

  • New title reflects the holistic systems approach (previously Building Control Systems)
  • New chapters on Green Design and building commissioning
  • Expanded coverage of indoor air quality and "sick building syndrome"
  • New instructor's manual
  • New, up to date photographs throughout
  • New discussion of HVAC controls and building management systems 
  • Introduces sustainable design strategies and building construction’s impact on ecosystems
"Offers new material on the environment and sustainability along with a broad survey on mechanical/electrical/plumbing systems in buildings. He favors principle concepts over technical detail, providing enough information so the architect may plan for space and access of each system, and have enough knowledge of terminology and function to coordinate effectively with specialists." (Book News, February 2008)
  • Features non-technical approach to incorporating building systems into designs, without getting bogged down in the details
  • Includes strategies for both active and passive control
  • Enables designers to effectively communicate and coordinate with specialists in HVAC, electrical, lighting, plumbing, and acoustics
  • Includes the latest building codes for architects and specialists on the design team