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The Complete Learning Disabilities Handbook: Ready-to-Use Strategies and Activities for Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities, 3rd Edition



The Complete Learning Disabilities Handbook: Ready-to-Use Strategies and Activities for Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities, 3rd Edition

Joan M. Harwell, Rebecca Williams Jackson

ISBN: 978-1-118-93768-6 March 2014 Jossey-Bass 416 Pages

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The third edition of this classic resource is a comprehensive source of information, strategies, and activities for working with learning disabled students. The book offers special educators, classroom teachers, and parents a wealth of new and proven suggestions and ready-to-use materials for helping LD students of all ages learn and perform at their fullest potential.

Acknowledgments xv

About the Authors xvii

About This Book xix

1 An Overview of the Field of Learning Disabilities 1

History of Learning Disabilities 2

Causal Factors 6

Incidence 8

Primary Characteristics of Learning Disabilities 8

Comorbid or Co-occurring Conditions 9

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 9

Conduct Disorder 10

Tourette Syndrome 10

Prognosis 10

Programs and Settings for the Learning Disabled 11

Facts About Learning Disabilities 12

Summary 14

List of Major Organizations for the Learning Disabled 14

Periodicals on Learning Disabilities 15

2 Research in the Field of Learning Disabilities 17

Overview of the Brain, Biology, and Behavior 17

Brain Injury 20

Structural Brain Differences 22

Biochemical Infl uences 25

Research on Memory 27

Research on Metacognition 28

Research on Phonological Processing Problems 42

Research on Maturation and Retention 43

Research on Communication Problems 45

Research on Self-Concept, Self-Esteem, and Self-Efficacy 45

Research on Teachers’ Perceptions 46

Research on Social Competence and Social Skills Training 46

Summary 47

3 Understanding the Laws 48

Parental Rights 50

Parents as Advocates 53

Student Rights 53

Teacher Rights and Obligations 53

Behavioral Goals and Behavioral Improvement Plans 54

Student and Parental Rights Regarding Suspension or Expulsion 56

Summary 57

4 Early Childhood Education for At-Risk Students 58

Special Education Services from Birth Through Age Two 62

Special Education Services for Children Ages Three Through Five 63

Assessment of Young Children 64

The Components of an Effective Early Childhood Education Program 65

Maturation and “Readiness” for Kindergarten 66

Summary 67

5 The Student Study Team Process 68

The Case for Early Intervention 69

Recognizing the Need 69

Talking with Parents 69

Parent and Student Preparation for the Student Study Team (SST) 71

Predictable Parental Feelings and Reactions 74

Initiating a Request for a Student Study Meeting 74

The Student Study Team Process 74

The Roles of the SST Members 76

Digital Classroom Accommodations 83

Sensory Accommodations 85

6 Formal Assessment and Identifi cation of the Student with Learning Disabilities 86

The Multidisciplinary Team Process 86

Roles of the Members of the Multidisciplinary Team 87

Guidelines for Assessment 88

Intellectual Assessment 89

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) 89

Visual Perception 91

Auditory Perception 93

Memory 94

Academic Assessment 94

Commonly Used Tests 95

Classroom and Playground Observations 96

Time-on-Task Assessment 100

Language Assessment 102

Health Assessment 103

Behavioral Assessment 103

Summary 104

7 Planning for the Student with Learning Disabilities 110

Eligibility Issues 111

The Discrepancy Model 113

Exclusionary Criteria 114

Assessment Scores and Their Implication for Learning 115

Eligible or Not Eligible? Developing the Individual Education Plan (IEP) 117

Choosing the Appropriate Educational Setting (“Least Restrictive Environment”) 117

Determining the Number of Hours 118

Writing Appropriate, Measurable Objectives 119

The Purpose of Goals 119

Dissenting Opinions 120

Reviews of the IEP 120

The Annual Review 120

The Triennial Review 120

Special Reviews 120

Due Process 120

8 Classroom Management for Teachers 127

Creating an Attractive and Useful Classroom 127

Planning the First Week’s Activities 128

Behavioral Management Considerations 129

Positive Reinforcement 129

Rules 130

Settling Students After a Recess 132

Projecting a Positive Feeling 132

Finding Better Ways to Talk to Students 133

Preventing Misbehavior 134

Keep the Environment Consistent and Structured 134

Help Students Succeed 134

Use Rewards, Contracts, Tokens, and Reinforcers 135

Rewards 135

Contracts 136

Lotteries 136

Token Economies 136

Handling Misbehavior 138

“Ball in Your Court” Technique 139

Timeout 139

Crisis Management 140

Four Types of Challenging Students 140

Record Keeping 143

Using the Classroom Aide Effectively 144

Twenty Tips for Successful Classroom Management 144

Sample Approaches to Handling Inappropriate Behaviors 146

Summary 149

9 Academic Management Considerations 150

Curriculum, Setting, and Students’ Needs 151

Getting to Know Your Students’ Academic Needs Quickly Through Informal Testing 152

Goal Setting and Effective Lesson Design 152

Planning the School Day 155

Planning for Flexibility 156

Scheduling and Pacing 156

Using a Variety of Activities 156

Grouping Students 156

Allowing Students Some Choice in Assignments and Rewards 156

Transforming Passive Students into Participatory Students 157

Overcoming Failure Syndrome 157

Planning Cooperative Learning Tasks 158

Suggestions for Maximizing Educational Results 159

Improving Lesson Results Through Feedback 160

Improving Learning Through Specifi c Teaching Techniques 161

Tests That Teach 161

Story Mapping, Advanced Organizers, and Webs 162

Mnemonics 164

Use of Higher-Level Thinking Activities 164

Issues of Grading and Evaluation 165

Tips for Academic Management 166

10 Interventions for Specific Problems 168

Visual Perceptual Deficits 169

Auditory Processing Deficits 172

Spatial Awareness Deficits 174

Conceptual Deficits 175

Memory Deficits 177

Students with Poor Work Habits 180

Interventions for Other Common LD Classroom Problems 182

Students with Poor Social Relationships or Behaviors 185

Students with Dyslexia 191

Sample History Assignment 193

Students with ADD or ADHD 194

Medical Treatment of ADD and ADHD 194

Behavioral Considerations for Students with ADD or ADHD 196

Tips for Classroom Teachers 197

11 Reading and the Student with Learning Disabilities 199

Who Will Have Trouble Learning to Read? 200

Elements of a Balanced Literacy Program 200

Phonemic Awareness 201

Sample Phonemic Awareness Lesson 1: Kindergarten–Grade 1 202

Sample Phonemic Awareness Lesson 2: Kindergarten–Grade 1 203

Sample Phonemic Awareness Lesson 3: Grades 1–2 (Instructional Level) 205

Sample Phonemic Awareness Lesson 4: Any Grade to High School 206

A Step-by-Step Guide for Teaching Reading to Students with Learning Disabilities 207

Letter Recognition and Sound Knowledge 210

Working with the Nonreader 211

Working with the Emergent Reader 216

Materials for Beginning and Emergent Readers 218

Working with the Guided Reader 220

Tips for Teaching Reading 228

12 Writing, Spelling, and Speaking 256

Printing 259

Teaching the Mechanics of Writing 260

Sample Interactive Writing Lesson (Instructional Level 1.3) 262

Sample Writing Lesson (Instructional Level 2.5) 265

Spelling for Young Students with Learning Disabilities 266

Materials 266

Methods 267

Speaking Activities for Young Students with Learning Disabilities 270

Handwriting Skills for Older Students with Learning Disabilities 271

The Mechanics of Writing for Older Students with Learning Disabilities 274

Letter Writing 277

E-mails and Digital Communication 278

Report Writing 278

Journal Writing 279

Spelling Activities for Older Students with Learning Disabilities 280

Speaking Opportunities for Older Students with Learning Disabilities 285

Sample Lesson: Recognizing Nouns 286

Sample Lesson: Recognizing Verbs 288

Writing Activities 290

My Accident 291

Title of My Story 292

13 Teaching Mathematically Challenged Students 297

Diagnosing a Student’s Difficulties 297

Teaching Techniques 299

Levels of Understanding: Concrete, Representational, and Abstract 299

Incorporating Reading into the Math Curriculum 303

Teaching Specific Skills 305

Counting Symbols and One-to-One Correspondence 305

Beginning Addition 306

Counting and Understanding the Numbers 0–100 307

Recognizing and Counting Coins 309

Place Value: Ones and Tens Place 309

Counting by Fives 311

Time—by the Hour 312

Time—by Hour and Minute 312

Beginning Subtraction 314

Doing and Undoing: Plus and Minus 314

Building Numbers 316

Addition and Regrouping 317

More and Less 317

Simple Story Problems 318

Subtraction With and Without Regrouping 318

Rounding Numbers to the Nearest 10 or Nearest 100 320

Recognizing and Spelling Number Words 320

Place Value—Through Thousands 323

Linear Measurement 323

Simple Multiplication Techniques 324

Simple Division Techniques 327

Doing and Undoing (Multiplication and Division) 327

Liquid Measurement 328

Fractions 328

Estimating 331

More Complex Story Problems 331

More Complex Division 332

Relating Fractions to Decimals 332

Making Change 333

Summary 333

14 Adolescents and Adults with Learning Disabilities 335

Understanding the Changing Needs of the Adolescent 335

School Changes 335

Physical Changes 336

Efforts to Engage the Junior High Student in the Educational Process 337

Departmentalization (School Within a School) 337

Personal Efforts of Individual Teachers 338

Curriculum for the Junior High School 339

Basic Skills 340

Strategies to Increase Metacognition and Learning 341

The Art of Counseling Adolescent Students 341

Teaching Students to Be Their Own Advocates 343

Transition IEPs 346

Understanding the Needs of the High School Student with Learning Disabilities 346

Work-Study Program 347

Continuation Schools and Independent Study Programs 348

Life and Social Skills 348

Understanding the Needs of the Young Adult with Learning Disabilities 348

Services Available to Students Going to College 350

Vocational Rehabilitation Services for the Learning Disabled 351

Adult Education Opportunities 351

15 The Role of the Family 352

The Role of Parents—as Parents 352

The Home Environment 353

Providing Worthwhile Activities 354

The Role of Parents—as Teachers 354

Supervision of Homework 354

Helping at School 356

The Role of Parents—as Advocates 356

Tips for Helping Your Child 357

16 Education in the New Millennium 359

Increased Mainstreaming 359

Increased Use of Technology 360

Class Size 361

Teacher Preparation Trends and Issues 362

Professional Salaries and Working Conditions 362

Conclusion 363

References 365

Further Reading 373

Index 377