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The Controlled Flood in Grand Canyon

The Controlled Flood in Grand Canyon

Robert H. Webb (Editor), John C. Schmidt (Editor), G. Richard Marzolf (Editor), Richard A. Valdez (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66471-1

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

367 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 110.

The natural flow of almost every river in the United States has been modified to meet various socioeconomic goals—navigation, irrigation, power generation and flood control. The success of the dams and reservoirs built to achieve these goals has been accompanied by changes in the status of riverine resources downstream, a cause of growing environmental and ecological concern. For example, before Glen Canyon Dam was completed, the Colorado River transported large quantities of sediment in floods as large as 8500 m3/s. After the dam was closed in 1963, dam releases typically were less than the powerplant capacity of 890 m3/s and exhibited large daily flow fluctuations. The river carried little sediment. The daily fluctuations in flow eroded sand bars, and the smaller, controlled flow did not redeposit them. The clear, cold water resulted in increased aquatic productivity such that rainbow trout and other nonnative fishes thrived while most native species were lost or endangered.

Foreword
Bruce Babbitt  VII

Preface
Robert H. Webb, John C. Schmidt, G. Richard Marzolf, and Richard A. Valdez ix

Background

Downstream Effects of Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon: A Review
R. H. Webb, D. L. Wegner, E. D. Andrews, R. A. Valdez, and D. T. Patten  1

Origins of the 1996 Controlled Flood in Grand Canyon
John C. Schmidt, Edmund D. Andrews, David L. Wegner, Duncan T. Patten, G. Richard Marzolf, and
Thomas 0. Moody  23

Sediment Transport and Geomorphology

Reworking of Aggraded Debris Fans
Robert H. Webb, Theodore S. Melis, Peter G. Griffiths, and John C. Elliott 37

Entrainment and Transport of Cobbles and Boulders from Debris Fans
James E. Pizzuto, Robert H. Webb, Peter C. Griffiths, John C. Elliott, and Theodore S. Melis 53

Linkage Between Grain-Size Evolution and Sediment Depletion During Colorado River Floods
David J. Topping, David M. Rubin, Jonathan M.N elson, Paul J. K inzel, and James P. Bennett  71

Flow and Suspended-Sediment Transport in the Colorado River Near National Canyon
J. Dungan Smith  99

Topographic Evolution of Sand Bars
E.D. Andrews, Christopher E. Johnston, John C. Schmidt, and Mark Gonzales  117

The Effect of Sand Concentration on Depositional Rate, Magnitude, and Location in the Colorado River Below the Little Colorado River
S. M. Wiele, E.D .A ndrews, and E.R.G riffin  131

Changes in the Number and Size of Campsites as Determined by Inventories and Measurement
Lisa H. Kearsley, Richard D. Quartaroli, and Michael J. C. Kearsley  147

Topographic and Bathymetric Changes at Thirty-Three Long-Term Study Sites
Joseph E. Hazel, Jr., Matt Kaplinski, Roderic Parnell, Mark Manone, and Alan Dale  161

Variation in the Magnitude and Style of Deposition and Erosion in Three Long (8-12 km) Reaches
as Determined by Photographic AnalYSis
John C. Schmidt, Paul E. Grams, and Michael F. Leschin  185

Riverine and Aquatic Biology

Photosynthetic and Respiratory Processes: An Open-Stream Approach
C. Richard Marzolf Carl J. Bowser, Robert Hart, Doyle W. Stephens, and William S. Vernieu  205

Periphyton Metabolism: A Chamber Approach
James T. Brock, Todd V. Royer, Eric B. Snyder, and Steven A. Thomas  217

Mineralization of Riparian Vegetation Buried by the 1996 Controlled Flood
Roderic A. Parnell, Jr. , Jeffrey B. Bennett, and Lawrence E. Stevens  225

Changes in Number, Sediment Composition, and Benthic Invertebrates of Backwaters
Mark J. Brouder, David W. Speas, and Timothy L. Hoffnagle  241

Lotic Community Responses in the Lees Ferry Reach
T. McKinney, R. S. Rogers, A. D. Ayers, and W. R. Persons  249

Response of Benthos and Organic Drift to a Controlled Flood
Dean W. Blinn, Joseph P. Shannon, Kevin P. Wilson, Chris O'Brien, and Peggy L. Benenati  259

Fish Abundance, Distribution, and Habitat Use
Timothy L. Hoffnagle, Richard A. Valdez, and David W. Speas 273

Flannelmouth Suckers: Movement in the Glen Canyon Reach and Spawning in the Paria River
Carole e. Mcivor and Michele L. Thieme  289

Movement, Habitat Use, and Diet of Adult Humpback Chub
Richard A. Valdez and Timothy L. Hoffnagle  297

Riparian Vegetation Responses: Snatching Defeat from the Jaws of Victory and Vice Versa
Michael J. e. Kearsley and Tina J. Ayers 309

Management Implications and Societal Costs

Summary and Synthesis of Geomorphic Studies Conducted During the 1996 Controlled Flood in
Grand Canyon
John E. Schmidt 329

Biological Implications of the 1996 Controlled Flood
Richard A. Valdez, Joseph P. Shannon, and Dean W. Blinn 343

The Economic Cost of the 1996 Controlled Flood
David A. Harpman 3 51

Flood Releases from Dams as Management Tools: Interactions Between Science and Management
C. Richard Marzolf William L. Jackson, and Timothy J. Randle 359