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The EU and Neighbors: A Geography of Europe in the Modern World, 3rd Edition

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The EU and Neighbors: A Geography of Europe in the Modern World, 3rd Edition

Brian W. Blouet

ISBN: 978-1-118-79006-9 February 2018 432 Pages

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Europe is the second-smallest of the continents, yet it is the third most populated—and its rich history has played out on the world's maps for centuries. The region's borders have undergone near-continuous evolution through the rise and fall of nations, rebellions, and civilizations, and the paths these borders take have repercussions around the globe.

This book presents a systematic survey of Europe and individual country-by-country coverage based on the most current data. From the core of the European Union to the lesser-known corners of the continent, this book provides in-depth examination of the physical, cultural, economic, and political geography of this powerful region. Fresh perspective sheds new light on recent events including Brexit, Russia's takeover of Crimea, terrorist attacks in France, and the EU's newest members, while the European Union's future is explored in light of the possible loss of the region’s second-largest economy. With deep insight into each nation and its relationship to the region, this book offers a uniquely intimate look at the various dynamics shaping Europe today.

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Introduction: The European Union 1

Present Issues 1

The Coal and Steel Community (1951) and the European Economic Community (1957) 2

EFTA: The European Free Trade Association (1960) 2

Enlargement of the European Economic Community (EEC) 2

European Union (1993) 4

Origins of the European Union 4

World War II 4

Western European Defense Needs 5

The Truman Doctrine, The Marshall Plan, and NATO 5

Agreeing on a European Framework 5

The Suez Canal Crisis 6

Jean Monnet 6

The Coal and Steel Community 7

Rome to Maastricht 7

EU Expansion and Expansion Fatigue 9

EU Issues 9

The EU Today 9

A Multicultural EU 10

The European Union and North America 10

Organization of the Text 11

Further Reading 11

Part I Systematic Survey

1 Physical Environments 14

Environmental Concerns 14

A View from Space 14

Climate and Weather 15

The Variability of European Weather 16

General Climate Considerations 17

Natural Vegetation 21

Topography: Mountains, Rivers, and Plains 23

Human Impact on the Environment 28

Further Reading 30

2 Cultural and Historical Geography 31

Introduction 31

A Mosaic of Cultures 32

Languages 32

Religions 40

Culture Contrasts 45

Further Reading 46

3 Population, Distribution, Density, Migration, and Aging 47

Introduction 47

Thomas Robert Malthus 48

Demographic History 48

The Demographic Transition 50

Distribution of Population 55

EU Population Trends 60

Further Reading 63

4 Rural and Urban Settlements 64

Introduction 64

The Network of Roman Towns 66

The Medieval City 66

The Renaissance City 70

The Industrial City 76

Rural Settlement 79

Settlements in the Modern Era 83

Ethnicity in European Cities 90

Summary 92

Further Reading 93

5 Economic Geography: Agriculture, Industry, and Services 94

Introduction 94

Sectors of the Economy 96

Agriculture 97

Industrialization 102

The Stages of European Economic Growth 109

The Impact of the EU on Agriculture, Industry, and Services 113

Human Development Index 115

Further Reading 115

6 Political Geography 116

Friedrich Ratzel 116

Mackinder 116

World War I 116

Ideas for a United Europe 121

Totalitarian Regimes and Economic Autarky 122

The New Order in Europe 125

New European Boundaries after World War II 126

The Cold War 128

Economic Cooperation in Western Europe 129

EU Enlargement (1995) Linked to Soviet Collapse (1991) 135

Widening versus Deepening 138

Summary 140

Further Reading 140

Part II The Core of the European Union

7 France and the Benelux Countries 142

Introduction 142

Belgium 156

The Netherlands 161

Luxembourg 166

Further Reading 168

8 Germany and Italy 169

Introduction 169

Germany 169

Italy 183

Summary 197

Further Reading 198

Part III Enlargement of EU

9 The United Kingdom, Denmark, and Ireland 200

Introduction 200

The United Kingdom 200

Regions of Britain: Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, and England 203

A United Kingdom? 219

Denmark 221

Ireland 225

Summary 230

Further Reading 230

10 Southern Europe: Greece, Spain, and Portugal 232

Greece 232

The Iberian Peninsula—Spain and Portugal 240

Further Reading 250

11 Austria, Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, Iceland, and Finland 251

Introduction 251

Austria 251

Switzerland 256

Sweden 263

Norway 268

Iceland 274

Finland 278

Summary 281

Further Reading 281

Part IV Enlargement in the 21st Century

12 Eastward Expansion 2004: The Baltics, Poland, The Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and Slovenia 284

Introduction 284

The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania 285

Poland 289

The Czech Republic 296

Slovakia 303

Hungary 305

Slovenia 311

East Europe Summary 312

Further Reading 312

13 Eastward Expansion 2007–2013: The Balkans 314

Introduction: The Balkans 314

Romania 315

Bulgaria 319

Croatia 322

Serbia 324

Montenegro 327

Bosnia-Herzegovina 328

Macedonia 331

Albania 332

Balkan Summary 334

Further Reading 335

Part V Regional Survey: Russia and Former Soviet Socialist Republics

14 Belarus, the Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, and Russia 338

Introduction 338

Belarus and the Ukraine 338

Moldova 344

Georgia 346

Russia 349

Summary 367

Further Reading 367

Part VI The Mediterranean Fringe

15 Turkey, Cyprus, Malta, and Gibraltar 370

Introduction 370

Turkey 370

Turkey, The Middle East, and Europe 376

Cyprus, Malta, and Gibraltar 377

Cyprus 377

Malta 381

Gibraltar 388

The EU in Africa 391

Islas Canarias 391

Further Reading 392

16 European Union Future? 394

EU External Relations 395

The Common Agricultural Policy in World Affairs 395

Imperial Pasts 396

Decolonization 396

Turkey 396

Summary 397

Glossary 398

Index 404

New to this Edition:

  • Insightful discussion of the recent global financial crisis and its impacts on both individual countries and the EU as a whole
  • New perspectives on Russia and its relationships with EU member countries
  • Updated data and statistics surrounding population, immigration, and trends across Europe
  • New, richer photographs and up-to-date maps that reflect current borders

Wiley Advantage:

  • Delves into the geographical issues of both the popular and lesser-known regions of Europe
  • Provides the most up-to-date coverage amidst Europe's constant changes
  • Covers the four M’s of construction: money, machines, manpower, and materials
  • Presents countries by order of EU entry, including the 2004 eastward expansion
  • Examines settlement patterns, special interests, and history, providing supplemental readings through NGS articles