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The Earth's Crust and Upper Mantle: Structure, DynaMic Processes, and Their Relation to Deep-Seated Geological Phenomena

The Earth's Crust and Upper Mantle: Structure, DynaMic Processes, and Their Relation to Deep-Seated Geological Phenomena

Pembroke J. Hart (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66897-9

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

736 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 13.

We have many reasons to believe that the history of the development of the earth's crust is fundamentally dependent on processes in the upper mantle to a depth not exceeding 1000 km. Because of this relation, the Upper Mantle Project was organized as an international program of geophysical, geochemical, and geological studies concerning the 'upper mantle and its influence on the development of the earth's crust.'

Many important results have emerged during the course of the Upper Mantle Project. Probably the most significant is the delineation in some detail of the 'fine structure'—the lateral and vertical variations of properties—of the upper mantle. These results have fully convinced us that there is a fundamental relation between this fine structure, the motions of materials in the upper mantle, and activities at or near the surface of the earth such as earthquakes (and the types of earthquake motions), volcanism, the building and deformation of mountains, and the differentiation of various rock types, including concentrations that are of economic interest.

Foreword  v

Preface  vii

1. Composition

Composition and Evolution of the Upper Mantle 
A. E. RINGWOOD 1

Density and Composition of the Upper Mantle: First Approximation as an Olivine Layer
FRANCIS BIRCH 18

Chemical Composition of the Earth's Crust
A. B. RONOV AND A. A. YAROSHEVSKY 37

Isotope Geochemistry of Crust-Mantle Processes
STANLEY R. HART 58

2. Heat Flow

Thermal History of the Earth 
E. A. LUBIMOVA 63

Heat Flow in North America
GENE SIMMONS AND ROBERT F. ROY 78

Heat Flow Map of Eurasia 
E. A. LUBIMOVA AND B. G. POLYAK 82

Heat Flow in Oceanic Regions
R. P. VON HERZEN AND W. H. K. LEE 88

Terrestrial Heat Flow in Volcanic Areas
HORAI AND SEIYA UYEDA 95

3. Seismology

Seismology and Upper Mantle Investigations
A. R. RITSEMA 110

Seismicity of the Earth
SETUMI MIYAMURA 115

Tectonic Activity in North America as Indicated by Earthquakes
GEORGE P. WOOLLARD 125

Seismicity of Continental Asia and the Region of the Sea of Okhotsk, 1953-1965
E. F. SAVRENSKY AND N. V. GOLUBEVA 134

Seismicity of the European Area  
Vit Karnkek 13 9

Seismicity of Southeast Australia
J. C. JAEGER AND LESLEY READ 145

Seismicity of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge System
LYNN R. SYKES 148

Worldwide Earthquake Mechanism
ANNE E. STEVENS 153

Mechanism of Earthquakes in and near Japan and Related Problems
MASAJI ICHIKAWA 160

The Field of Elastic Stresses Associated with Earthquakes
L. M. BALAKINA, L. A. MISHARINA, E. I. SHIROKOVA, AND A. V. VVEDENSKAYA 166

Zero Frequency Seismology
FRANK PRESS 171

Prediction of Earthquakes
TAKAHIRO HAGIWARA 174

Explosion Seismology: Introduction
I. P. KOSMINSKAYA 177