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The Earth, the Heavens and the Carnegie Institution of Washington

The Earth, the Heavens and the Carnegie Institution of Washington

Gregory A. Good (Editor), Maxine Singer (Foreword by)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66531-2

Mar 2013

252 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the History of Geophysics Series, Volume 5.

To reduce errors in geomagnetic measurements, the research vessel Carnegie was specially constructed of non-magnetic materials. While refueling in Apia Harbor, Samoa, November 29, 1929, an explosion occurred, destroying the ship and taking the lives of Captain J. P. Ault and the ship's cabin boy. In her 20 years, Carnegie cruised 342,681 miles of the world's oceans.

Foreword

History and Science at the Carnegie Institution of Washington
Maxine Singer, President, CIW   v

Preface
Gregory A. Good   ix

Introduction

The Breadth, Height, and Depth of the Geosciences and Space Sciences at the Carnegie Institution of Washington
Gregory A. Good   xi

Early Years: Founding the CIW and Defining Geophysics

Andrew Carnegie and Charles Doolittle Walcott: The Origin and Early Years of the Carnegie Institution of Washington
Ellis L. Yochelson   1

Development and Promotion of the Initial Scientific Program for the Geophysical Laboratory
H. S. Yoder, Jr.   21

Vision of a Global Physics: The Carnegie Institution and the First World Magnetic Survey
Gregory A. Good   29

Vilhelm Bjerknes's Duty to Produce Something Clear and Real in Meteorological Science
Ralph Jewell   37

In the Field: The CIW and Expeditions

Climate and History: Raphael Pumpelly's Geoarcheological Expeditions to Turkestan
Peggy Champlin   47

Weighing the Earth from a Sublnarine: The Gravity Measuring Cruise of the U.S.S. S-21
Naomi Oreskes   53

Amundsen and Edmonds: Entrepreneurial and Institutional Exploration
S. M. Silvennan and Marion Edmonds Smith   69

Expeditions and the CIW: COlnlnents and Contentions
Ronald E. Doel   79

The Heavens: The Mount Wilson Observatory

Sharing a Mountaintop: The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory on Mount Wilson 89
R. S. Brashear   89

A Fox Raiding the Hedgehogs: How Henry Norris Russell Got to Mt. Wilson 103
David H. DeVorkin   103

Converting an Hypothesis into a Research Program: T. C. Chamberlin, his Planetesimal Hypothesis, and its Effect on Research at the Mt. Wilson Observatory
N. S. Hetherington   113

Women and Women's Work at Mt. Wilson Observatory before World War II
John Lankford   125

COmmentary on the Mt. Wilson Papers
Owen Gingerich   129

Sounding the Ionosphere

The Big Story: Tuve, Breit, and Ionospheric Sounding, 1923-1928
C. Stewart Gillmor   133

Building a Washington Network for Atmospheric Research
Bruce Hevly   143

International Spin-offs of Carnegie Research
To Watheroo and Back: The DTM in Australia, 1911-1947
R. W. Home   149

Some Memories of the Watheroo Magnetic Observatory
W. D. Parkinson   161

A Canadian Life with Geomagnetism: The Research of Frank T. Davies
J. E. Kennedy and W. O. Kupsch   165

Dr. C. T. Kwei and the Carnegie in China in 1930s and 1940s
Wang Shen, Liang Baixian, and Hu Xinru  171

Post-War Geophysics at the CIW

Chopping and Changing at the DTM 1946-1958: M. A. Tuve, Rock Magnetistn, and Isotope Dating
H. E. Le Grand   173

Merle A. Tuve's Post-War Geophysics: Early Explosion Seismology
Thomas D. Cornell   185

Isotope Geology at Carnegie 1950-1970: Dating Earth Processes
L. T. Aldrich   215

Resources for Historical Research
Archival Sources for the History of Geosciences
Deborah Day   225

Sources for the History of the Carnegie Institution of Washington at the Office of Administration
John Strom   229

The Carnegie Institution of Washington's Contributions to the Physical Sciences: Archival Sources at the Huntington Library
R. S. Brashear   231

Sources for History of Geophysics at the Center for History of Physics, Atnerican Institute of Physics
Ronald E. Doel   235

The Earth and Space Sciences at Carnegie: A Pictorial Sampler frotn the First Six Decades
Shaun J. Hardy   237