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The Earth Beneath the Continents: A Volume of Geophysical Studies in Honor of Merle A. Tuve

The Earth Beneath the Continents: A Volume of Geophysical Studies in Honor of Merle A. Tuve

John S. Steinhart (Editor), T. Jefferson Smith (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66895-5

Apr 2013, American Geophysical Union

663 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 10.

This volume had its inception in an agreement among the many groups participating in the 1963 Lake Superior seismic experiments to attempt to bring together their results in a single publication. The purpose was twofold: to provide easy access to all the data obtained, and to enable the reader to make comparisons between the various interpretations advanced to explain the crustal structure in the Lake Superior province of the Canadian Shield. It was hoped that such a compilation would facilitate the very necessary task of distinguishing the points of general agreement from the conclusions that were doubtful, confusing, or uncorroborated.

It was clear in the early stages of interpretation that the crust in the Lake Superior region is of far greater complexity than might have been supposed from earlier, less detailed work in the shield areas. This fact made it especially desirable to include in the volume along with the seismic studies the latest available results from other geophysical and geological investigations of the region. This has been done, and the first two sections of the present volume constitute the realizable portion of the original hope for a comprehensive description of the geophysical character of the Lake Superior region. The story is, of course, far from complete. Additional seismic experiments were mounted in 1964, and a large one is in progress as this is being written. Detailed gravity surveys and combined geological-geophysical studies are being pursued, while new studies of heat flow, magnetics, and conductivity are under way or already complete. We hope that these investigations will provide answers to some of the many questions still remaining about the structure of the Lake Superior area.

1 General Geophysical and Geological Studies of the Lake Superior Region  1

A Review of the Keweenawan Geology of the Lake Superior Region
H. C. HALLS 3

Geologic Evidence for Crustal Structure in the Western Lake Superior Basin
WALTER S. WHITE 28

Geologic Structure East and South of the Keweenaw Fault on the Basis of Geophysical Evidence
L . O. BACON 42

A Reconnaissance Underwater Gravity Survey of Lake Superior
J . R. WEBER AND A. K. GOODACRE 56

Aeromagnetic, Gravity, and Sub-Bottom Profiling Studies in Western Lake Superior
RICHARD J . WOLD AND NED A. OSTENSO  66

Aeromagnetic Studies of Eastern Lake Superior
WILLIAM J . HINZE, NORBERT W. O'HARA, JAMES W. TROW, AND GEORGE B. SECOR 95

A Regional Aeromagnetic Survey of Wisconsin
ROBERT W. PATEN AUDE 111

The Isotope Geochemistry of Strontium and Lead in Lake Superior Waters
STANLEY R. HART AND GEORGE R. TILTON 127

2 Seismic Studies in the Lake Superior Region 139

The Midcontinent Gravity High: Gross Crustal Structure
T. J . COHEN AND R. P. MEYER 141

A Time-Term Interpretation of the First-Arrival Data of the 1963 Lake Superior Experiment
M. J . BERRY AND G. F . WEST 166

Crustal Structure under Lake Superior
T. JEFFERSON SMITH, J O H N S. STEINHART, AND L . T. ALDRICH  181

Time Terms and Structure in Western Lake Superior
J O H N S. STEINHART AND T. JEFFERSON SMITH 198

A Polarization Study of P Head Waves from the Lake Superior Experiment
R. F . MERETJ 205

Seismic Attenuation and Spectral Measurements from the Lake Superior Experiment
DAVID E . WILLIS AND J O H N M. DENOYER 218

Lake Superior Seismic Experiment: Frequency Spectra and Absorption
B . F . HOWELL, J R  227

Seismic Spectra and Detection Probabilities from Explosions in Lake Superior
A. M. BANCROFT 234

Short Note on Underwater Sound Measurements from the Lake Superior Experiment
JOHN M. DENOYER, G. E . FRANTTI, AND DAVID E . W I L L I S 241

Long-Range Seismic Data from the Lake Superior Seismic Experiment, 1963-1964
R. H. MANSFIELD AND J . F . EVERNDEN 249

Seismic-Wave Propagation in the Upper Mantle: Lake Superior, Wisconsin, to Denver, Colorado
J . C. ROLLER AND W. H. JACKSON 270

Comparison of Time Term and Pn Residual Methods of Interpreting First Arrivals
from the Lake Superior Experiments
A. R. BEDNAREK AND R. P. MEYER 276

3 Seismic Studies of the Earth's Crust 291

Structure beneath Continents: A Critical Review of Explosion Studies 1960-1965
DAVID E . J A M E S AND J O H N S. STEINHART 293

Explosion Seismological Research in Japan

RESEARCH GROUP FOR EXPLOSION SEISMOLOGY 334

Review of Geophysical Evidence on Crust and Upper-Mantle Structure on the
Eastern Seaboard of Canada
A. M. DAINTY, C. E . KEEN , M . J . KEEN , AND J . E . BLANCHARD 349

Crustal Results of Fixed Multiple Shots in the Mississippi Embayment
K. MC CAMY AND R. P. MEYER 370

Seismic Observations of Explosions in Montana
T. ASADA AND L. T. ALDRICH 382

Crustal Structure between the Nevada Test Site and Boise, Idaho, from Seismic-
Refraction Measurements
D. P. HILL AND L. C. PAKISER 391

Crustal Structure in Coastal Alaska
A. L. HALES AND T. ASADA 420

Detailed Crustal Investigation along a North-South Section through the Central
Part of Western Germany
KARL FTJCHS AND MARK LANDISMAN 433

4 Theory, Earthquakes, and Instruments 453

Notes on Seismic Ray Theory for Spherical- and Flat-Earth Models
K. E. BULLEN 455

Reflected and Head Wave Amplitudes in a Medium of Several Layers
M. J . BERRY AND G. F . WEST 464


Propagation of Disturbances in a Gutenberg-Bullen A' Spherical Earth Model:
Travel Times and Amplitudes of S Waves
MARK LANDISMAN, YASUO SATO, AND TATSUO USAMI 482

An Iterative Method for Solving the Time-Term Equation
R. F . MEREU 495

Free Oscillations, Aftershocks, and Q
FRANK PRESS 498

Clustering in Aftershock Sequences
CINNA LOMNITZ AND ARNOLDO HAX  502

Earthquake Activity of Peru
LEONIDAS OCOLA 509

Reflections at the M Discontinuity and the Origin of Microseisms
ANTON L. HALES AND JOSEPH B . NATION 529

Total System Calibration of High-Frequency Seismograph Systems by the Use of the Maxwell Bridge
ETSUZO SHIMA AND ROBERT P. MEYER 538

A Broad-Band Large Dynamic Range Seismograph
I. S. SACKS  543

5 Synthesis and New Methods in Structural Studies 555

Regional Isostatic Relations in the United States
G. P. WOOLLARD 557

Spatial Variations of Tidal Gravity
JOHN T. KUO AND MAURICE EWING 595

Penological Nature of the Stable Continental Crust
A. E . RINGWOOD AND D. H . GREEN 611

Composition of the Continental Crust as Estimated from Seismic Observations
L . C PAKISER AND RHODA ROBINSON 620

Significance of Magnetic Anisotropy in Appalachian Sedimentary Rocks
JOHN W. GRAHAM 627

Reviewers 650

Author Index 651

Subject Index 659