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The Evolution of Management Thought, 7th Edition

Daniel A. Wren, Arthur G. Bedeian

ISBN: 978-1-119-40008-0 September 2017 448 Pages

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The seventh edition of author Daniel Wren's and Arthur Bedeian’s classic text provides a comprehensive understanding of the origin and development of ideas in management. This text traces the evolution of management thought from its earliest days to the present, by examining the backgrounds, ideas and influences of its major contributors.

Every chapter in the seventh edition of The Evolution of Management Thought has been thoroughly reviewed and updated to convey an appreciation of the people and ideas underlying the development of management theory and practice. The new edition includes an Instructor’s Manual and a PowerPoint package featuring 650 photographs, charts, and other visual materials. The authors’ intent is to place various theories of management in their historical context, showing how they’ve changed over time. The text does this in a chronological framework, yet each part is designed as a separate and self-contained unit of study; substantial cross-referencing provides the opportunity for connecting earlier to later developments as a central unifying theme.

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About the Authors xvii

Preface xix

Part 1 Early Management Thought 1

1 A Prologue to the Past 3

A Cultural Framework 4

The Economic Facet 5

The Social Facet 6

The Political Facet 6

The Technological Facet 6

People, Management, and Organizations 7

The Human Being 8

Organizations and Management 9

Summary 10

2 Management Before Industrialization 11

Management in Early Civilizations 11

The Near East 11

The Far East 12

Egypt 14

The Hebrews 14

Greece 15

Rome 16

The Roman Catholic Church 17

Feudalism and the Middle Ages 18

The Revival of Commerce 18

Cultural Rebirth 21

The Protestant Ethic 21

A Criticism of the Weberian Thesis 23

Modern Support for Weber 24

The Liberty Ethic 25

The Market Ethic 27

Summary 30

3 The Industrial Revolution: Challenges and Perspective 31

The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain 31

The Steam Engine 32

Management: The Fourth Factor of Production 34

Management Challenges in Early Factories 35

The Labor Challenge 35

Recruitment 35

Training 36

Discipline and Motivation 37

The Search for Managerial Talent 39

Management Functions in the Early Factory 41

Cultural Consequences of the Industrial Revolution 43

Working Conditions 43

Child and Female Labor 45

Summary 47

4 Management Pioneers in the Early Factory 48

Robert Owen: The Search for a New Harmony 48

Early Managerial Experiences 49

The Call for Reform 50

Charles Babbage: The Irascible Genius 53

The First Computer 53

Analyzing Industrial Operations 55

Andrew Ure: Pioneering in Management Education 56

Principles of Manufacturing 57

Charles Dupin: Industrial Education in France 58

The Pioneers: A Final Note 60

Summary 61

5 The Industrial Revolution in the United States 62

Antebellum Industry and Management 62

Early Industrial Development 63

The American System of Manufacturing 65

The Railroads: Pioneering in U.S. Management 67

The Communication Revolution 67

The Age of Rails 68

Daniel C. McCallum: System and Organization 68

Henry V. Poor: A Broader View of Management 71

Emerging Governance Issues 72

Summary 74

6 Industrial Growth and Systematic Management 75

The Growth of U.S. Enterprises 75

Carnegie and the Rise of Big Business 77

The Emergence of Systematic Management 78

Engineers and Economists 78

The Labor Question 81

Big Business and Its Changing Environment 84

Business and Society: Barons or Benefactors? 84

Business and Labor: Uneasy Relations 88

Inventive and Innovative Impulses 89

Business and Government: Seeds of Reform 90

Summary of Part 1 91

Part 2 The Scientific-Management Era 93

7 The Advent of Scientific Management 95

Frederick W. Taylor: The Early Years 96

Taylor at Midvale 96

The Search for Science in Management 98

The Quest for Improved Performance Incentives 99

Task Management 102

Taylor: The Manager and the Consultant 104

Taylor: The Peripatetic Philosopher 108

The Eastern Rate Case 109

Watertown and the Congressional Investigation 112

The Mental Revolution 117

Taylor and the Human Factor 119

Summary 121

8 Spreading the Gospel of Efficiency 123

The Most Orthodox: Carl G. Barth 123

Charting Other Paths: Henry L. Gantt 125

The Task and Bonus System 126

The Habits of Industry 127

Graphic Aids to Management 127

Gantt: The Later Years 129

Partners for Life: The Gilbreths 131

Nothing Succeeds Like . . . 132

And So, into Scientific Management 134

Support for the Scientific-Management Movement 135

The First Lady of Management 137

Efficiency through Organization: Harrington Emerson 141

Line and Staff Organization 142

Principles of Efficiency 143

Emerson’s Efficiency Engineering and Practice 144

The Gospel in Public-Sector Organizations: Morris L. Cooke 145

The Boxly Talks 146

Public Administration 148

Summary 149

9 The Human Factor: Preparing the Way 150

Personnel Management: A Dual Heritage 151

Personnel as Welfare Work 151

Scientific Management and Personnel 153

Psychology and the Individual 157

Toward Scientific Psychology 158

The Birth of Industrial Psychology 158

The Social Person Era: Theory, Research, and Practice 160

The Antecedents of Industrial Sociology 160

Sociological Foundations 163

Some Early Empirical Investigations 163

The “Democratization of the Workplace” 164

The Trade-Union Movement 164

The Changing Nature of Union–Management Cooperation 166

Employee Representation Plans 168

Summary 169

10 The Emergence of the Management Process and Organization Theory 170

Henri Fayol: The Man and His Career 170

The Need for Management Theory 173

The Principles of Management 174

The Elements of Management 178

Planning 178

Organizing 179

Command, Coordination, and Control 181

A Final Note 182

Bureaucracy: Max Weber 183

Bureaucracy as the Ideal 184

The Advantages of Bureaucracy 185

The Disadvantages of Bureaucracy 186

Summary 187

11 Scientific Management in Theory and Practice 188

The Study and Practice of Scientific Management 189

Education for Industrial Management 189

The International Scientific-Management Movement 192

France and Britain 192

Germany, Austria, Poland, and Russia 193

Scientific Management in Other European Nations 196

Formalizing Scientific Management in Europe 197

Japan, China, and Australia 198

And Beyond 200

Scientific Management in Industrial Practice 201

The Hoxie Report 202

The Thompson and Nelson Studies 205

Emerging General Management 207

The Impact of Scientific Management on Other Disciplines 207

Early Organization Theory 208

Scientific Management at DuPont and General Motors 209

Business Policy 211

Summary 213

12 Scientific Management in Retrospect 214

The Economic Environment: From the Farm to the Factory 215

Technology: Opening New Horizons 217

The Social Environment: From Achievement to Affiliation 219

Cultural Thought: The Collision Effect 220

The Social Gospel 220

The Political Environment: The Advent of Progressivism 222

Scientific Management and the Progressives 222

Business and the Progressives 223

Summary of Part II 224

Part 3 The Social Person Era 227

13 The Hawthorne Studies 229

The Hawthorne Studies Begin 230

Illumination Study (1924–1927) 230

Relay-Assembly Test-Room Study (1927–1932) 231

The Interviewing Program (1925–1932) 235

Bank-Wiring Observation Room Study (1931–1932) 238

Organizations as Social Systems 240

Human Relations, Leadership, and Motivation 241

Human Relations and Human Collaboration 243

Anomie and Social Disorganization 244

Developing the Human-Relations-Oriented Manager 245

Human Relations and Motivation 245

Summary 247

14 The Search for Organizational Integration 248

Mary P. Follett: The Political Philosopher 248

The Group Principle 249

Conflict Resolution 251

A Business Philosopher 252

Authority, Responsibility, and Power 253

The Task of Leadership 254

A Final Note 256

Chester I. Barnard: The Erudite Executive 257

The Nature of Cooperative Systems 258

Formal Organizations: Theory and Structure 259

The Acceptance Theory of Authority 260

The Functions of the Executive 261

Moral Leadership 263

Coda 263

Summary 264

15 People and Organizations 265

People at Work: The Micro View 265

Developing Constructs for Group Analysis 266

The Growth of Human-Relations Research and Training 269

Changing Assumptions about People at Work 270

People and Motivation 270

Job Enlargement 273

Participation in Decision-Making 273

Leadership: Combining People and Production 275

People at Work: The Macro View 276

Organizations as Sociotechnical Systems 277

New Tools for Macro Analysis 278

Summary 279

16 Organizations and People 280

Organizations: Structure and Design 281

James D. Mooney: Organization Theory and Practice 281

Texts, Teachers, and Trends 283

Building Blocks for Administrative Theory 286

Span of Control 288

Toward a Top-Management Viewpoint 289

Ralph C. Davis: Pater Familiae et Magister 290

Harry Hopf: Toward the Optimum 292

Analyzing Top Management 293

Ownership and Control 294

Invisible and Visible Hands 295

Summary 296

17 Human Relations in Theory and Practice 297

The Impact of Human Relations on Theory and Practice 297

Applying and Extending Human Relations 298

Hawthorne Revisited 298

Premises of an Industrial Society 298

Research Methods and Data Interpretation 300

Summary 304

18 The Social-Person Era in Retrospect 305

The Economic Environment: From Depression to Prosperity 305

Attempts at Economic Recovery 306

Big Business 307

Seeds of Change: The New Technologies 308

The Social Environment: The Social Ethic and the Organization Man 309

Shifting Social Values 310

A “Confusion of Souls” 312

The Social Ethic 312

The Political Environment: FDR’s Pledge 314

The New Deal 314

Augmenting the Position of Labor 315

Summary of Part III 317

Part 4 Moving Onward: The Near Present 319

19 Management Theory and Practice 321

The Renaissance of General Management 322

Principles of Management and the Functions of Management 322

Peter F. Drucker and the Practice of Management 323

Management Education: Challenges and Consequences 325

The “Management Theory Jungle” 326

Management Education: The Porter–McKibbin Report 327

The Management Theory–Practice Divide 327

What Do Managers Do? 329

Global Studies of Managerial Work 330

The Changing Scene 331

From Business Policy to Strategic Management to Global Strategy 331

Markets and Hierarchies 333

The Resource- and Knowledge-Based Theories of the Firm 333

Governance and Agency Issues 334

Multinational Enterprise and Global Strategy 335

Strategic Leadership and “Dynamic Capabilities” 336

Summary 338

20 Organizational Behavior and Organization Theory 339

The Human Side of Organizations 340

The Transition from Human Relations to Organizational Behavior 340

Theories X and Y 341

Human-Resource Management and Industrial Relations: The Changing Scene 343

Job Design 345

Work Motivation 347

Effective Leadership 349

The Trait Phase 349

The Behavioral Phase 350

The Situational Phase 351

Contemporary Leadership Theories 351

Managing Across Borders 353

Project GLOBE 355

Organization Theory: A Continuing Venture 356

Aston Studies: Workflow Integration and Production Continuity 356

Thompson: Technological Interdependence 357

Contingency Theory 357

Organizations and Their Environments 358

Strategic Choice 358

Resource-Dependence Theory 359

Population Ecology 359

U.S. Theories Abroad 360

Summary 361

21 Science and Systems in an Information Age 362

The Quest for Science in Management 363

Operations Research (OR) 363

Production Management in Transition 364

“If Japan Can . . . Why Can’t We? ” 365

Quality and Quality Circles 365

The Toyota Production System and Lean Manufacturing 368

Globalization and the International Organization for Standardization 368

Seeking World-Class Manufacturing 368

Systems and Information 369

General Systems Theory and Cybernetics 370

From the “Invisible Hand” to the “Digital Hand” 371

It Is a Small, Smaller World 371

Enabling Global Trade through Information and Communication 373

Summary 374

22 Obligations and Opportunities 375

Managing in a Global Arena 375

The Globalization of Business 375

Individuals and Organizations: Relating to Evolving Expectations 377

Business Ethics 378

Acting Ethically and Globally 380

Business and Society 381

Social Entrepreneurship 384

Business and Its Environment 384

Summary 385

Epilogue 386

Name Index 387

Subject Index 403

  • Updates to Chapters 19, 20, 21, 22
  • Chapter 19 features updates on evidence-based management, the management theory-practice divide, global studies of managerial work,  multinational enterprise and global business strategy, and management’s role in developing dynamic capabilities
  •  Chapter 20 features updates on managing across borders – Project GLOBE, strategic human-resource management, and organization theory across cultures
  • Chapter 21 features updates on lean manufacturing, international organization for standards (ISO), and the digital hand and globalization
  • Chapter 22 features updates multinational enterprise and business ethics, social responsibility, and environmental management, and social entrepreneurship
  • Features an Instructor’s Manual and PowerPoint package prepared by Regina Scannell Greenwood and Julia Kurtz Teahan
  • Includes 650+ photographs, charts, and other visual materials