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The Gamification of Learning and Instruction: Game-based Methods and Strategies for Training and Education



The Gamification of Learning and Instruction: Game-based Methods and Strategies for Training and Education

Karl M. Kapp

ISBN: 978-1-118-09634-5 May 2012 Pfeiffer 336 Pages

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Praise for The Gamification of Learning and Instruction

"Kapp argues convincingly that gamification is not just about adding points, levels and badges to an eLearning program, but about fundamentally rethinking learning design. He has put together a brilliant primer for learning professionals on how to gamify learning, packed with useful advice and examples."
—ANDERS GRONSTEDT, president, Gronstedt Group

"After reading this book, you'll never be able to design boring learning again."
—CONNIE MALAMED, author, Visual Language For Designers; author/creator of The eLearning Coach Blog

"Engaging, informative and complete; if you need to understand anything about instructional game design, this is the book you need. It provides the right amount of academic evidence, practical advice and insightful design tips to have you creating impactful learning in no time."
—SHERRY ENGEL, associate director learning technology, Penn Medicine Center for Innovation and Learning

"What Karl Kapp has done with this book is looked at games and learning from every possible angle....he provocatively asks questions that the learning community needs to answer, like 'Do our design processes still work?' and 'Are we really meeting the needs of today's learners?' This book may make you anxious, make you laugh, or make you angry. But one thing it will definitely do is make you think."
—RICH MESCH, experiential learning guru, Performance Development Group

List of Figures and Tables xii

Contents on the Web xv

Foreword by Kevin Kruse xvii

Preface xxi

Acknowledgments xxvii

About the Author xxix

Contributors xxxi

Chapter 1 What Is Gamification? 1

Chapter Questions 1

Introduction 2

Gamification in Action 2

What Is a Game? 6

What Is Gamification? 9

What Gamification Is Not 12

Gamification Versus Serious Games 15

Growth of Gamification 18

Who Is Using Gamification 19

Implications and Importance to the Future of Learning 22

Key Takeaways 23

Chapter 2 It’s in the Game: Understanding Game Elements 25

Chapter Questions 25

Introduction 26

Abstractions of Concepts and Reality 26

Goals 28

Rules 29

Conflict, Competition, or Cooperation 31

Time 32

Reward Structures 33

Feedback 35

Levels 37

Storytelling 41

Curve of Interest 45

Aesthetics 46

Replay or Do Over 48

Implications and Importance to the Future of Learning 49

Key Takeaways 50

Chapter 3 Theories Behind Gamification of Learning and Instruction 51

Chapter Questions 51

Introduction 51

Motivation 52

The Taxonomy of Intrinsic Motivation 58

Self-Determination Theory 63

Distributed Practice 65

Scaffolding 66

Episodic Memory 67

Cognitive Apprenticeship 69

Social Learning Theory 70

Flow 71

Key Takeaways 74

Chapter 4 Research Says . . . Games Are Effective for Learning 75

Chapter Questions 75

Introduction 76

Game Research 76

Randel’s Meta-Analysis 77

Wolfe’s Meta-Analysis 80

Hays’ Meta-Analysis 80

Vogel’s Meta-Analysis 82

Ke’s Qualitative Meta-Analysis 83

Sitzmann’s Meta-Analysis 85

Elements of Games 88

Key Takeaways 101

Chapter 5 Leveling Up: What Gamification Can Do 105

Chapter Questions 105

Introduction 106

Improving Surgeon Hand-Eye Coordination 106

Solving Problems 108

Teaching Higher Order Skills 110

Thinking the Unthinkable 112

Thinking Like Your Opponent 113

Engaging Learners in a Live Classroom 115

Helping People Lose Weight 116

Making Physical Therapy More Enjoyable 119

Influencing Pro-Social Behavior 119

Testing Knowledge and Performance 123

Good for Young and Old 125

Key Takeaways 126

Chapter 6 Achiever or Killer? Player Types and Game Patterns 127

Chapter Questions 127

Introduction 128

Types of Play 128

Player Skill Levels 131

Bartle’s Player Types 132

Caillois’ Patterns of Play 137

Game Interactions 141

Key Takeaways 142

Chapter 7 Applying Gamification to Problem Solving 143

Chapter Questions 143

Introduction 144

Differences Between Novices and Experts 145

Turning Novices into Experts 147

Preparing Firefighters 158

Gamification of Problem Solving 161

Key Takeaways 164

Chapter 8 Applying Gamification to Learning Domains 165

Chapter Questions 165

Introduction 166

Declarative Knowledge 167

Conceptual Knowledge 171

Rules-Based Knowledge 177

Procedural Knowledge 181

Soft Skills 185

Affective Domain 185

Psychomotor Domain 187

Key Takeaways 190

Chapter 9 Managing the Gamification Design Process 193

Chapter Questions 193

Introduction 194

Development Process: ADDIE vs. Scrum 195

Team 202

Design Document 205

Paper Prototyping 216

Key Takeaways 217

Chapter 10 Congratulations! Selecting the Right In-Game Achievements, by Lucas Blair 219

Chapter Questions 219

Introduction 220

Measurement vs. Completion Achievements 220

Boring vs. Interesting Tasks 222

Achievement Difficulty 223

Goal Orientation 224

Expected vs. Unexpected Achievements 225

When Achievement Notification Occurs 227

Achievement Permanence 228

Who Can See Earned Achievements? 229

Negative Achievements 230

Achievements as Currency 231

Incremental and Meta Achievements 232

Competitive Achievements 233

Non-Competitive Cooperative Achievements 235

Key Takeaways 236

Chapter 11 Perspective of a Gamer, by Nathan Kapp 239

Chapter Questions 239

Introduction 240

Gamer Generation 240

Mario Kart: Thinking Outside the Box 240

Madden Football: Analyzing Problems 241

RuneScape: The Art of the Deal 243

Civilization Revolution: Balancing Resources 244

Games vs. School 245

Key Takeaways 246

Chapter 12 Casual Game Site: DAU Case Study, by Alicia Sanchez 247

Chapter Questions 247

Introduction 248

Games and Simulations in the Curriculum 248

DAU Casual Games Initiative 249

Games Portal 254

Key Takeaways 255

Chapter 13 Alternate Reality Games for Corporate Learning, by Koreen Olbrish 257

Chapter Questions 257

Introduction 258

Zombie Apocalypse 258

What Is an ARG? 259

ARG Terminology 260

Design Principles for ARGs 261

Potential of ARGs 263

Key Takeaways 264

Chapter 14 If You Want to Learn More, Play Games 265

Chapter Questions 265

Introduction 266

Pick a Card, Any Card—A Game of Phones 266

Survival Master 271

The Virtue of Gamification 274

Next Steps 275

Key Takeaways 276

Glossary 277

Notes 285

Index 297