List of Exhibits.
PROFESSIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF FRAUD DETERRENCE.
1 Fraud Deterrence as a Business Management Tool.
Motivations for Process Improvement and Monitoring.
How the Mighty Have Fallen.
Importance of Internal Controls in Dynamic External Environments.
Environmental Change and Its Effect on the Fraud Triangle.
Where Is Bedrock for Fraud Deterrence?
2 Definition of Fraud Deterrence.
Deterrence Activities Will Affect Control Culture.
3 History of Fraud Deterrence.
Early Fraud Deterrence.
Modern Fraud Deterrence.
4 The Role of Professional Standards.
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Auditing Standards.
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Accounting
and Review Standards.
Institute of Internal Auditors Standards.
Association of Certified Fraud Examiners Standards.
Certified Fraud Deterrence Analyst—National Association of
Certified Valuation Analysts.
5 The Fraud Triangle.
The Fraud Triangle and Financial Reporting Fraud.
6 Motivations of Fraud Deterrence and the Transition to Investigation.
Motivations for Deterrence Analysis.
Transition to Investigation.
7 A Fraud Deterrence Professional’s Overview of the Legal Process.
Introduction and Objectives.
Basics of Opinion Testimony and the Role of the Judiciary.
Expert Qualification Standards : When Is a Witness an “Expert”?
Admissibility versus Weight: When Is an Expert’s Opinion
and/or Testimony Admissible?
Limitations on the Scope of Expert Opinion Testimony.
Reports and Discovery Obligations.
8 Human Resources Concerns.
Retaliation: The Newest Wave of Employment Litigation.
An Ounce of Prevention: Background Checks and Employment Inquiries
Under the Fair Credit Reporting Act.
Checklist for Complying with the FCRA When
Using a Third Party to Obtain “Consumer Reports."
Selected Federal Whistleblower Statutes.
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Disclosure to Applicant Regarding Consumer Reports.
Disclosure to Employee Regarding Consumer Reports.
Sample Notice of Intent to Obtain an Investigative.
Fair Credit Reporting Act.
Sample Disclosure of Nature and Scope of Investigative.
Sample Pre-Adverse Action Notice.
Sample Adverse Action Notice.
TOOLS OF FRAUD DETERRENCE.
9 Internal Control and Fraud Deterrence: The COSO Integrated Framework.
Information and Communication.
10 Recent Corporate Governance Reforms Enacted to Deter Financial Fraud.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and Related Rules and Regulations.
Board of Directors.
Protections for Directors and Officers.
11 Generation-X Technologies and Information Assurance.
Do We Need a Paradigm Shift in Systems Assurance and Auditing?
Generation X Enterprise Technologies: State of the Art.
Information Systems Integration: A Challenge.
Assured Information Emanates from Assured Systems.
Information Assurance: A Function of Strategic Importance.
Various Information Assurance and Control Measures.
British Standards: BS7799 and BS 7799-2:2002.
System Security Engineering Capability Maturity Model: SSE-CMM.
12 The Impact of Communications Infrastructure on Fraud Detection
Fraud and Technology.
Communication Security Solutions.
13 Process and Information Validation.
Part I: Interview and Interrogation Process.
Difference between Interview and Interrogation.
Preparation and Room Setting.
Conducting the Interview.
Structured Approach to the Interview and Interrogation.
of a Suspect in a Fraud Investigation.
Part II: Forensic Document and Handwriting Examination.
What Is a “Document”?
Red Flags of Document Examination.
Red Flags of Handwriting Identification.
14 Data Analysis and Monitoring: How Effective Data Analysis Can
Identify Fraud Risk Indicators and Promote Business Intelligence.
Generating Business Intelligence.
What to Look for in Data Analysis Technology.
Putting It All Together.
Function of Fraud Deterrence Reports.
Reporting on Internal Control.
Reporting in an Investigation.
Importance of Documentation.
APPLICATIONS OF FRAUD DETERRENCE.
16 Deterring Fraudulent Financial Reporting and Asset Misappropriation.
Organizational (Corporate) Culture.
Organizational (Corporate) Governance.
Internal Controls for Deterrence.
17 Fraud and the Bankruptcy Code.
Bankruptcy Refuge for Fraudulent Actors.
Fraudulent Transfer Statutes.
Intentionally Fraudulent Transfers.
Constructively Fraudulent Transfers.
Application of Fraudulent Transfer Laws.
Remedies for the Recovery of Fraudulent Transfers.
Corporate Actors/Individual Liability.
Uniform Fraudulent Conveyance Act and Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act.
Uniform Fraudulent Conveyance Act.
Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act.
18 U.S.C. §§ 152–157.
11 U.S.C. § 548. Fraudulent Transfers and Obligations.
11 U.S.C. § 522 Exemptions.
11 U.S.C. § 101(31). Definitions.
18 Discovering and Preventing Fraud in Business Formation and Dissolution.
Factors Affecting Whether the Fraud Will Succeed.
Informational Rights and Fraud.
Approval Rights and Governance.
Additional Drafting Solutions.
Minimizing the Occurrence of Fraud.
Discovery of Fraud.
19 Identity Theft and Privacy Protection.
Development of an Epidemic.
The Outbreak and Law Enforcement.
Protecting Personal Information.
Detect Unauthorized Use.
Defend and Regain Your Identity.
Bulk Data Breaches.
The Online Frontier of Phishing and Spoofing.
Impact on Fraud Deterrence.
20 Intellectual Property.
How to Tell When Your Company Has Intellectual Property.
Basic Reasons for Protecting.
Policing Intellectual Property Rights.
Possible Recoveries through Litigation.
21 Fraud Deterrence in the U.S. Private Equity Finance System.
U.S. Private Equity System and Its Governance Structure.
Foundations of a Fraud Deterrence System in Private Equity.
Adoption of Internal Control Systems within the U.S. Private Equity System.
Conclusions and Recommendations.
Glossary of Terms.