Skip to main content

The Human Lineage

E-Book

$114.99

The Human Lineage

Matt Cartmill, Fred H. Smith, Kaye B. Brown (Series Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-21145-8 September 2011 Wiley-Blackwell 624 Pages

Download Product Flyer

Download Product Flyer

Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description.

Description

"This textbook, aimed at advanced undergraduates and postgraduates in paleoanthropology courses, tackles a rather difficult task—that of presenting the substantial body of paleontological, genetic, geological and archaeological evidence regarding human evolution, and the associated scientific history, in a logical and readable way without sacrificing either clarity or detail... the sheer quality of the writing and explanatory synthesis in this book will undoubtedly make it a valuable resource for students for many years."
—PaleoAnthropology, 2010

This book focuses on the last ten million years of human history, from the hominoid radiations to the emergence and diversification of modern humanity. It draws upon the fossil record to shed light on the key scientific issues, principles, methods, and history in paleoanthropology. The book proceeds through the fossil record of human evolution by historical stages representing the acquisition of major human features that explain the success and distinctive properties of modern Homo sapiens.

Key features:

  • Provides thorough coverage of the fossil record and sites, with data on key variables such as cranial capacity and body size estimates
  • Offers a balanced, critical assessment of the interpretative models explaining pattern in the fossil record
  • Each chapter incorporates a "Blind Alley" box focusing on once prevalent ideas now rejected such as the arboreal theory, seed-eating, single-species hypothesis, and Piltdown man
  • Promotes critical thinking by students while allowing instructors flexibility in structuring their teaching
  • Densely illustrated with informative, well-labelled anatomical drawings and photographs
  • Includes an annotated bibliography for advanced inquiry

Written by established leaders in the field, providing depth of expertise on evolutionary theory and anatomy through to functional morphology, this textbook is essential reading for all advanced undergraduate students and beginning graduate students in biological anthropology.

Preface xi

Chapter 1 The Fossil Record 1

Changing Ideas about the Changing Earth 1

Neptune vs. Vulcan 3

A Brief Guide to Sedimentology 4

Dating the Rocks 5

The Succession of Faunas 7

Radiation-Based Dating Techniques 9

Other Dating Techniques 11

Dating Based on the Cycles of the Earth 11

The Problem of Orogeny 13

Continental Drift 14

Life: The First Three Billion Years 15

Multicellular Life 17

The Cambrian Revolution 18

Jaws, Fins, and Feet 21

The Reptilian Revolutions 23

The Two Great Extinctions 26

The Mammals Take Over 27

Chapter 2 Analyzing Evolution 29

Parsimony and Pigeons 29

Darwin’s Theory 30

Problems with Darwinism 35

The Concept of Species 38

Evidence for Anagenesis and Cladogenesis 40

The Tempo of Speciation 40

Semispecies, Hybrids, and Isolating Mechanisms 43

“Races” 44

Species and Fossils 46

Morphospecies 48

Microevolution and Macroevolution 50

The Politics of Macroevolution 52

Reconstructing the Tree of Life 52

Sources of Error in Phylogenetics 53

Linnaean Classification 58

Evolutionary Systematics 59

Phenetics and Cladistics 60

Pros and Cons of Phylogenetic Systematics 61

Chapter 3 People As Primates 63

Early Mammals 63

Allometry 71

Allometry and Early Mammals 73

Death and Molar Occlusion 73

Allometry, Motherhood, and Milk 74

Respiration and the Palate 76

The Tribosphenic Molar 78

Live Birth and Placentation 80

Cretaceous Mammals 81

The Order Primates 84

The Living Strepsirrhines 89

Anthropoid Apomorphies: Ears, Eyes, and Noses 91

Tarsiers 93

Platyrrhines: The New World Anthropoids 94

Cercopithecoids: The Old World Monkeys 95

Hominoids: The Living Apes 97

Pongids and Hominids 101

Bonobos and Chimpanzees 103

Humans vs. Apes: Skulls and Teeth 104

Primate Origins: The Crown Group 109

Fossil Primates: The Stem Group 111

The First Fossil Euprimates 113

Eocene “Lemurs” and “Tarsiers” 115

The First Anthropoids 117

Anthropoid Radiations 121

Chapter 4 The Bipedal Ape 129

Being Human vs. Becoming Human 129

The Taung Child 130

Australopithecus Grows Up 131

Bipedal Posture and the Vertebral Column 136

Bipedal Posture and the Pelvis 138

Bipedal Locomotion: Knees 142

Bipedal Locomotion: The Hip Joint 145

Bipedal Locomotion: Feet 146

Australopithecus Stands Up 150

The Skull of Australopithecus Africanus 151

Australopithecus robustus 152

Man-Apes, Just Plain Apes, or Weird Apes? 157

Postcranial Peculiarities 157

Louis Leakey and East Africa 158

Olduvai Gorge 160

Sahelanthropus: The Oldest Hominin? 164

Mio-Pliocene Enigmas: Orrorin and Ardipithecus 165

Australopithecus anamensis 168

Australopithecus afarensis 170

Lucy’s Locomotion: The View from Stony Brook 173

Lucy’s Locomotion: The Rebuttal 176

Lucy’s Locomotion: Persistent Questions 176

Australopithecus bahrelghazali? 182

Australopithecus platyops? 183

Australopithecus garhi 183

Australopithecus aethiopicus 185

Australopithecus boisei 187

Fitting in South Africa: The Problem(s) of Sterkfontein 190

Fitting in South Africa: Some robustus Questions 193

The Phylogeny of Australopithecus 195

What Did Australopithecus Eat? 201

Australopithecus and the Ecosystem 205

Two Species or Two Sexes? 207

Hunting, Gathering, and Dimorphism 209

Dinichism: A Possible Synthesis 214

Explaining Hominin Origins 215

Primitive Homo—Or “Advanced” Australopithecus? 217

Dating and Geological Context of the Habilines from Olduvai, Omo, and Koobi Fora 223

Habiline Skulls 224

Habiline Teeth 227

Habiline Postcranial Remains 227

Advanced Australopithecus: The Frustrations of Variation 229

Advanced Australopithecus: Back to South Africa 230

Advanced Australopithecus or Early Homo? Phylogenetic Issues 231

Chapter 5 The Migrating Ape: Homo erectus and Human Evolution 233

The “Muddle in the Middle” 233

A Brief History of Homo erectus: 1889–1950 235

Later Discoveries in Africa and Eurasia 238

Erectine Chronology and Geographic Distribution 240

Cranial Vault Morphology of Homo erectus 243

Cranial Capacity and the Brain 248

Faces and Mandibles of Asian Homo erectus 250

The Erectine Dentition 251

Erectine Postcranial Remains 252

Early African Erectine Skulls and the Ergaster Question 253

Early African Erectine Postcranial Morphology 257

Early Erectine Adaptations: Anatomy and Physiology 261

Early Erectine Adaptations: The Archaeological Evidence 265

Patterns of Development and Evolutionary Change in Erectines 267

Early Erectine Radiations in Africa 268

Out of Africa I: The Erectine Radiation 272

Indonesian Erectines and the Specter of “Meganthropus” 275

Chinese Erectines 278

Dmanisi—Humans at the Periphery of Europe 279

The Initial Occupation of Europe 283

Major Issues: A Summing Up 288

Taxonomy 288

Dates and Additional Evidence 289

Evolutionary Patterns 290

Chapter 6 The Big-Brained Ape: Regional Variation and Evolutionary Trends in the Middle Pleistocene 291

Of “Archaic Homo sapiens” and Homo heidelbergensis 292

Early Models of Later Human Evolution 294

The Recent African Origin Model 297

The Multiregional Evolution Model 299

European Heidelbergs 301

Petralona 302

Bilzingsleben 305

Swanscombe 305

Steinheim 306

Mauer 307

Boxgrove 309

Atapuerca—Sima de los Huesos 309

Other European Heidelbergs 314

African Heidelbergs 316

Kabwe 316

Bodo and Ndutu 318

African Heidelberg Mandibles 319

Other African Heidelbergs 319

North Africans 320

Asian Heidelbergs? 320

Mugharet El-Zuttiyeh 320

Other West Asian Candidates 321

South Asia 321

East Asia 321

Australasia 323

Ngandong 324

Liang Bua 326

Supraorbital Tori, Chins, and Projecting Faces 330

Major Issues: Speciation, Migration, and Regional Continuity 332

Chapter 7 Talking Apes: The Neandertals 337

Neandertals—Early Discoveries and Ideas (1829–1909) 339

Ideas about Neandertals—From Boule to the 21st Century 343

Neandertal Chronology and Distribution 346

Neandertal Morphology—The Cranial Vault 350

Frontal Bones 351

Occipital Bones 356

Temporal Bones 359

Brains 361

Neandertal Faces 361

External Nose 364

Prognathism 365

Internal Nose 366

Neandertal Mandibles 367

Neandertal Dentition 370

Body Size and Proportions 373

Neck and Upper Limb 377

Pelvis and Lower Limb 379

Neandertal Life History 383

Neandertal Genetics 385

Neandertal Technology 388

Diet and Subsistence Behavior 390

Neandertals and Language 391

Symbolic Behavior 395

Early European Neandertals 398

Würm Neandertals from Western Europe 401

Western and Central Asian Neandertals 402

Late Neandertals 406

Major Issues 410

Chapter 8 The Symbolic Ape: The Origin of Modern Humans 413

A “Creative Explosion”? 414

Modern Human Anatomy—The Skull 416

Modern Human Anatomy—Cranial Capacity 420

Modern Human Anatomy—The Postcranial Skeleton 421

The Geochronology of Modern Human Origins 421

The African Transition: Background and Dating 422

The African Transition: Vault Morphology 425

The African Transition: Facial Morphology 427

The African Transition: Additional Bones, Archaeology, and Other Matters 428

East Asian Archaic Humans: Background and Context 429

East Asian Archaic Sites and Specimens 430

Dali 430

Jinniushan 431

Maba 431

Other Cranial Pieces 431

Dentition 432

East Asian Archaics: Continuity or Someone New? 432

Early Modern Humans: The East African Record 432

Out of (East) Africa: Early Modern People in North and South Africa 435

The First Modern People Outside Africa: The Near Eastern Evidence 439

African and Circum-Mediterranean Gene Flow and Modern Human Origins 444

Modern Human Origins in East Asia 447

Modern Human Origins in Australasia 450

Europe: The Last Frontier 458

Recent Human Genetics and Modern Human Origins 465

Ancient DNA in Early Modern Humans 469

Modern Human Origins: The Models vs. the Facts 470

The Recent African Origin Model 471

Alternative Views—Multiregional Evolution 472

Alternative Views—The Assimilation Model 473

Assimilation and Interactions Between Modern and Archaic Humans 476

Appendix: Cranial Measurements 481

Bibliography 487

Index 565

"The Human Lineage could be used as a sole text, supplemented with journal articles and library sources."  (PaleoAnthropology, 2010)

"Although paleoanthropology as a field moves rapidly the sheer quality of the writing and explanatory synthesis in this book will undoubtedly make it a valuable resource for students for many years." (PaleoAnthropology, July 2010)"The Human Lineage excels in providing rich detail and clear explanations for complex issues. This is true of the writing, but is particularly apparent in the 300 or so superb illustrations that detail dozens of fossils as well as anatomical structures and mechanics." (The Quarterly Review of Biology, March 2010)

"Cartmill and Smith have produced a generally excellent work for advanced students." (CHOICE, October 2009)

  • Provides thorough coverage of the fossil record and sites, with data on key variables such as cranial capacity and body size estimates.
  • Offers the most balanced, critical assessment of the interpretative models explaining pattern in the fossil record.
  • Each chapter incorporates a "Blind Alley" box focusing on once prevalent ideas now rejected such as the arboreal theory, seed-eating, single-species hypothesis, and Piltdown man Promotes critical thinking by students while allowing instructors flexibility in structuring their teaching.
  • Densely illustrated with informative, well-labeled anatomical drawings and photographs.
  • Engaging and clear writing throughout
  • Includes an annotated bibliography for advanced inquiry.
  • Both authors are established leaders in the field, together providing depth of expertise on evolutionary theory and anatomy through to functional morphology.