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The Modeling Process in Geography: From Determinism to Complexity



The Modeling Process in Geography: From Determinism to Complexity

Yves Guermond (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-62257-5 March 2013 Wiley-ISTE 376 Pages

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This title focuses on the evolution of the modeling process and on new research perspectives in theoretical and applied geography, as well as spatial planning. In the last 50 years, the achievements of spatial analysis models opened the way to a new understanding of the relationship between society and geographical space. In this book, these models are confronted by the real conditions of territorial prospect, regional dynamism, cultural policy, HMO, and spatial segregation. This confrontation takes into account the instability of social behavior and the permanence of partial determinist trajectories.

Foreword. The Taste for Measuring and Modeling xi

Preface xxiii

Acknowledgements xxv

Chapter 1. The Place of Both the Model and Modeling in HSS 1
Patrice LANGLOIS and Daniel REGUER

1.1. Models and modeling: definitions 2

1.2. The mathematical concept of a model 5

1.3. Is there a specificity of HSS? 7

1.4. Modeling: explain to understand? 11

1.5. Bibliography 13

Chapter 2. From Classic Models to Incremental Models 15

2.1. The geographic “object” 16

2.2. Lessons from the “classic models” 16

2.3. Introduction to dynamics and auto-organization 22

2.4. From auto-organization to complexity 26

2.5. Spatial agents 30

2.6. Incremental modeling 32

2.7. Bibliography 35

Chapter 3. The Formalization of Knowledge in a Reality Simplifying System 39
Françoise LUCCHINI

3.1. Formalizing a complex cultural system using a series of perspectives 40

3.2. Differentiation of the system of cities by culture: contribution of the spatial analysis for testing the“global cultural model” 51

3.3. Alternative formalizations 63

3.4. Conclusion 69

3.5. Bibliography 69

Chapter 4. Modeling and Territorial Forecasting: Issues at Stake in the Modeling of Réunion’s Spatial System 71

4.1. Introduction 71

4.2. A few major theoretical breakthroughs for modeling spatial complexity 72

4.3. Modeling and territorial forecasting of the socio-spatial system of Réunion 78

4.4. Modeling of Réunion’s socio-spatial system 90

4.5. Towards a modeling of the dynamics of Réunion’s system 93

4.6. Conclusion 97

4.7. Bibliography 98

Chapter 5. One Model May Conceal Another: Models of Health Geographies 101

5.1. Modeling in order to surpass descriptions? 102

5.2. Mode of the models and models in vogue 104

5.3. Conclusion 111

5.4. Bibliography 111

Chapter 6. Operational Models in HMO 113
Jean-François MARY and Jean-Manuel TOUSSAINT

6.1. Buffer and barycenter to determine the location of cardiac defibrillation 114

6.2. Thiessen’s accessibility formula 117

6.3. Accessibility: the direct added-value of the GIS 121

6.4. A regional database of road accessibility devoted to emergency 123

6.5. The reallocation projects and their consequences 126

6.6. Relocation of a medical clinic: simulation of a new accessibility 131

6.7. Bibliography 134

Chapter 7. Modeling Spatial Logics of Individual Behaviors: From Methodological Environmentalism to the Individual Resident Strategist 137
Michel BUSSI

7.1. Reconsidering spatial determinism: modeling versus local development 138

7.2. Ecological methodology 142

7.3. Towards a post-industrialist behavior 149

7.4. From neighborhood effect to the theory of the citizen-resident-strategist 152

7.5. Bibliography 157

Chapter 8. Temporalities and Modeling of Regional Dynamics: The Case of the European Union 161

8.1. Integrating time and temporalities into spatial models 162

8.2. Introduction of complexity theory in the interpretation of regional inequalities in Europe 168

8.3. Conclusion 186

8.4. Bibliography 188

Chapter 9. Modeling the Watershed as a Complex Spatial System: A Review 191

9.1. Shape indices for measuring various forms of a watershed 192

9.2. Organization of the networks 193

9.3. Synthesis concerning the shape and organization indices 200

9.4. From morphometry to complex systems 202

9.5. Conclusion 213

9.6. Bibliography 213

Chapter 10. Understanding to Measure...or Measuring to Understand? HBDS: Towards a Conceptual Approach for the Geographic Modeling of the Real World 217

10.1. A forgotten face of the geographic approach 217

10.2. Formalizing a spatial reasoning in databases 226

10.3. Example of thematic application: the industrial risks at Notre- Dame-de-Gravenchon (lower Seine
valley) 246

10.4. Back to the sources 252

10.5. Bibliography 253

Chapter 11. Complexity and Spatial Systems 255

11.1 The paradigm of complexity 255

11.2. The systemic paradigm: from the combinatorial to emergence 260

11.3. Moving towards a more formalized definition of the notion of a spatial system 266

11.4. Bibliography 275

Chapter 12. Cellular Automata for Modeling Spatial Systems 277

12.1. The concept of the automaton and its modeling 277

12.2. A little bit of history 278

12.3. The concept of the finite state automaton 279

12.4. The concept of the cellular automaton 285

12.5. CAs used for geographic modeling 293

12.6. Bibliography 306

12.7. Websites 307

Chapter 13. Multi-Agent Systems for Simulation in Geography: Moving Towards an Artificial Geography 309

13.1. Introduction 309

13.2. From global to local description of structures and spatial dynamics 310

13.3. Multi-agent systems 313

13.4. Artificial geography: simulations of structures and spatial dynamics 319

13.5. Conclusion 329

13.6. Bibliography 329

Conclusion 335

List of Authors 337

Index 339