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The Nanoscience and Technology of Renewable Biomaterials



The Nanoscience and Technology of Renewable Biomaterials

Lucian A. Lucia (Editor), Orlando Rojas (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-444-30748-1 July 2009 Wiley-Blackwell 366 Pages

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The unique nanoscale properties of renewable biomaterials present valuable opportunities in the field of nanoscience and technology. Lignocellulosic biomass is an important industrial resource which can be used for the production of highly efficient and environmentally sustainable nanomaterials.

The Nanoscience and Technology of Renewable Biomaterials presents the latest advances in biomass nanotechnology, including leading research from academia and industry, as well as a future vision for the nanotechnology of forest products.

Topics covered include:

  • A fundamental review of the relationship between nanotechnology and lignocellulosic biomass
  • Characterization methods for biomass on the nanometer scale
  • Cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin as nanoscopic biomaterials-physical features, chemical properties and potential nanoproducts
  • Nanoscale surface engineering
  • Renewable materials as scaffolds for tissue engineering
  • Nanoscopically-controlled drug delivery

This book will be a valuable resource for chemists, chemical engineers, bioscience researchers and materials scientists who are interested in harnessing the nanotechnological features of renewable biomaterials.

Chapter 1 - A Fundamental Review of the Relationships between Nanotechnology and Lignocellulosic Biomass

Theodore H. Wegner and E. Philip Jones

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Use of Lignocellulosic-based Materials

1.3 Green Chemistry and Green Engineering

1.4 Nanotechnology

1.5 Nanotechnology-enabled Product Possibilities

1.6 Wood Nanodimensional Structure and Composition

1.7 Nanomanufacturing

1.8 Nanotechnology Health and Safety Issues

1.9 Instrumentation, Metrology, and Standards for Nanotechnology

1.10 A Nanotechnology Agenda for the Forest Products Industry

1.11 Forest Products Industry Technology Priorities

1.12 Nanotechnology Priority Areas to Meet the Needs of the Forest Products Industry

1.13 Summary


2 Biogenesis of Cellulose Nanofibrils by a Biological Nanomachine

Candace H. Haigler and Alison W. Roberts

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Background

2.3 CesA Protein is a Major Component of the Plant CSC

2.4 The Functional Operation of the CSC

2.5 Phylogenetic Analysis

2.5.1 Possible Functional Diversification of CS Proteins

2.6 Conclusion


3 Tools for the Characterization of Biomass at the Nanometer Scale

James F. Beecher, Christopher G. Hunt and J.Y. Zhu

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Water in Biomass

3.3 Measurement of Specific Biomass Properties

3.4 Microscopy and Spectroscopy

3.5 Summary


4 Tools to Probe Nanoscale Surface Phenomena in Cellulose Thin Films: Applications in the Area of Adsorption and Friction

Junlong Song, Yan Li, Juan P. Hinestroza and Orlando J. Rojas

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Polyampholytes Applications in Fiber Modification

4.3 Cellulose Thin Films

4.4 Friction Phenomena in Cellulose Systems

4.5 Lubrication

4.6 Boundary Layer Lubrication

4.7 Techniques to Study Adsorption and Friction Phenomena

4.8 Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)

4.9 Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM)

4.10 Application of SPR and QCM to Probe Adsorbed Films

4.11 Lateral Force Microscopy

4.12 Summary



5 Polyelectrolyte Multilayers for Fibre Engineering

Rikard Lingström, Erik Johansson and Lars Wågberg

5.1 Background

5.2 The Formation of PEM on Wood Fibres

5.3 Formation of PEM with Different Polyelectrolytes and the Properties of the Layers Formed

5.4 Formation of PEM on Fibres

5.5 Influence of PEM on Properties of Fibre Networks

5.6 Influence of PEM on Adhesion Between Surfaces

5.7 Concluding Remarks



6 Hemicelluloses at Interfaces: Some Aspects of the Interactions

Tekla Tammelin, Arja Paananen and Monika Österberg

6.1 Overview

6.2 Introduction

6.3 Theoretical Basis for Interpreting QCM-D and AFM Data

6.4 Experimental

6.5 Results  

6.6 Discussion

6.7 Conclusions



7 Lignin: Functional Biomaterial with Potential in Surface Chemistry and Nanoscience

Shannon M. Notley and Magnus Norgren

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Lignin Synthesis and Structural Aspects

7.3 Isolation of Lignin from Wood, Pulp and Pulping Liquors

7.4 Solution Properties of Kraft Lignin

7.5 Surface Chemistry of Solid State Lignin

7.6 Lignin: Current and Future Uses

7.7 Concluding Remarks


8 Cellulose and Chitin as Nanoscopic Biomaterials

Jacob D. Goodrich, Deepanjan Bhattacharya and William T. Winter

8.1 Overview

8.2 Introduction

8.3 Preparation and Microscopic Characterization of Cellulose and Chitin Nanoparticles

8.4 NMR Characterization of Cellulose and Chitin Nanoparticles

8.5 Chemical Modification of Cellulose and Chitin Nanoparticles

8.6 Nanocomposite Properties

8.7 Conclusions



9 Bacterial Cellulose and its Polymeric Nanocomposites

Marie-Pierre G. Laborie

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Bacterial Cellulose: Biosynthesis and Basic Physical and Mechanical Properties

9.3 BC Nanocomposites by in situ Polymerization

9.4 BC Nanocomposites by Polymer Impregnation and Solution Casting

9.5 BC Nanocomposites via Biomimetic Approaches

9.6 BC/Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Bacterial Cellulose Nanocrystals

9.7 Conclusions and Prospects


10 Cellulose Nanocrystals in Polymer Matrices

John Simonsen and Youssef Habibi

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Background on CNXL Material Science

10.3 Polymer Nanocomposite Systems

10.4 Thermal Properties

10.5 Mechanical Properties of CNXL

10.6 Transport Properties


11 Development and Application of Naturally Renewable Scaffold Materials for Bone Tissue Engineering

Seth D. McCullen, Ariel D. Hanson, Lucian A. Lucia and Elizabeth G. Loboa

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Natural Renewable Materials for Bone Tissue Engineering

11.3 Bone Background

11.4 Conclusions and Future Directions


12 Template Synthesis of Nanostructured Metals Using Cellulose Nanocrystal

Yongsoon Shin and Gregory J. Exarhos

12.1 Overview

12.2 Introduction

12.3 Metal Oxide and Metal Carbides

12.4 Metal Nanoparticles on CNXL

12.5 Conclusion