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The Non-halogenated Flame Retardant Handbook



The Non-halogenated Flame Retardant Handbook

Alexander B. Morgan, Charles A. Wilkie

ISBN: 978-1-118-68624-9 April 2014 400 Pages

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Due to the emphasis on replacing halogenated flame retardants with alternate technologies, this handbook contains in one place all of the current commercial non-halogenated flame retardant technologies, as well as experimental systems near commercialization. 

This book focuses on non-halogenated flame retardants in a holistic but practical manner.  It starts with an overview of the regulations and customer perceptions driving non-halogenated flame retardant selection over older halogenated technologies.  It then moves into separate chapters covering the known major classes of non-halogenated flame retardants.  These chapters are written by known experts in those specific chemistries who are also industrial experts in how to apply that technology to polymers for fire safety needs.  The handbook concludes with some of the newer technologies in place that are either niche performers or may be commercial in the near future.  Future trends in flame retardancy are also discussed.

The Non-Halogenated Flame Retardant Handbook book takes a practical approach to addressing the narrow subject of non-halogenated flame retardancy.  This includes more emphasis on flame retardant selection for specific plastics, practical considerations in flame retardant material design, and what the strengths and limits of these various technologies are.  Previous flame retardant material science books have covered non-halogenated flame retardants, but they focus more on how they work rather than how to use them. 


1 The History and Future Trends of Non-halogenated Flame Retarded Polymers 1
James W. Mitchell

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Key Flame Retardancy Safety Requirements 6

1.3 Geographical Trends 8

1.4 Applications for Non-halogenated FRP's 11

References 14

2 Phosphorus-based FRs 17
Sergei Levchik

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Main Classes of Phosphorus-based FRs 18

2.3 Polyolefins 20

2.4 Polycarbonate and Its Blends 27

2.5 Polyphenylene Ether Blends 32

2.6 Polyesters and Polyamides 34

2.7 Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) and Thermoplastic Polyurethanes (TPU) 38

2.8 Epoxy Resins 39

2.9 Unsaturated Polyesters 43

2.10 PU Foams 45

2.11 Textiles 50

2.12 Conclusions and Further Trends 55

References 56

3 Mineral Filler Flame Retardants 75
Reiner Sauerwein

3.1 Introduction 75

3.2 Industrial Importance of Mineral Flame Retardants 76

3.3 Overview of mineral filler FRs 81

3.4 Working Principle of Hydrated Mineral Flame Retardants 101

3.5 Thermoplastic and Elastomeric Applications 109

3.6 Reactive Resins/Thermoset Applications 127

3.7 Summary, Trends and Challenges 137

References 138

4 Nitrogen-based Flame Retardants 143
Martin Klatt

4.1 Introduction 143

4.2 Main Types of Nitrogen-based Flame Retardants 144

4.3 Ammonia-based Flame Retardants 144

4.4 Melamine-based Flame Retardants 149

4.5 Nitrogen-based Radical Generators 159

4.6 Phosphazenes, Phospham and Phosphoroxynitride 162

4.7 Cyanuric Acid-based Flame Retardants 164

4.8 Summary and Conclusion 165

References 165

5 Silicon Based Flame Retardants 169
Mert Kilinc

5.1 Introduction 169

5.2 Basics of Silicon Chemistry 170

5.3 Industrial Applications of Silicones 172

5.4 Silicones as Flame Retardant Materials 175

5.5 Mode of Actions of Silicone-based Flame Retardants 190

5.6 Toxicology and Environmental Effects of Silicones 191

5.7 Future Trends in Silicon-based Flame Retardants 194

5.8 Summary 195

References 196

6 Boron-based Flame Retardants in Non-Halogen-based Polymers 201
Kelvin K. Shen

6.1 Introduction 201

6.2 Major Functions of Borates in Flame Retardancy 202

6.3 Major Commercial Boron-based Flame Retardants and Their Applications 202

6.4 Mode of Actions of Boron-based Flame Retardants 233

6.5 Conclusions 234

References 235

7 Polymer Nanocomposites: A nearly Universal FR Synergist 243
Guenter Beyer and Tie Lan Nanocor

7.1 Introduction 243

7.2 Inorganic Materials as Candidate for Nanocomposite Formation 244

7.3 Nanocomposites as Non-Halogenated Flame 252

7.4 Combinations of Nanocomposite with Traditional Flame Retardants 271

7.5 Contribution of Nanocomposites to Achieve New FR Cable Standard (EU CPR) 282

7.6 New Developments and Outlook 286

References 289

8 Intumescent Systems 293
S. Duquesne and T. Futterer

8.1 Introduction 293

8.2 The basics of Intumescence 294

8.3 Intumescent Products and Formulations Used in Thermoplastic and Thermoset Materials 300

8.4 Intumescent Systems in Fire Protection 321

8.5 Trends and Challenges in Intumescent Systems 329

8.6 Conclusions 332

References 333

9 Other Non-Halogenated Flame Retardant Chemistries and Future Flame Retardant Solutions 347
Alexander B. Morgan, Paul A. Cusack andCharles A. Wilkie

9.1 The Periodic Table of Flame Retardants 347

9.2 Transition Metal Flame Retardants 350

9.3 Sulfur-based Flame Retardants 355

9.4 Carbon-based Flame Retardants 356

9.5 Tin-based Flame Retardants 364

9.6 Engineering Non-Hal FR Solutions 380

9.7 Future Directions 385

Acknowledgements 395

References 395

Index 000