DescriptionThe oil palm is the world's most valuable oil crop. With palm oil production increasing by more than 50% in the last decade of the twentieth century and set to double in the next twenty years, it has never before been so important to understand the history, use and cultivation of this fascinating crop.
There have been many new developments since the third edition of The Oil Palm in 1988, particularly in the fields of clonal propagation, agronomy, breeding and molecular genetics. This new edition has been completely rewritten, and is the first book to record and explore these and many other developments.
The book traces the origins and progress of the industry, and describes the basic science underlying the physiology, breeding and nutrition of the oil palm. It covers both cutting-edge research, and wider issues such as genetic modification of the crop, the promise of clonal propagation, and the effects of palm oil on human health. The practical problems of maximising yield of oil and kernels are discussed in relation to the present 'yield gap' and oil extraction rate decline in Malaysia. The oil palm is also compared to the soya bean and other oil crops, and the recent history of the price of oil palm products is considered in the light of this.
The Oil Palm makes an essential contribution to oil palm research and will be an indispensable reference and guide for agricultural students, researchers and all those working, worldwide, in the oil palm industry.
1.1 Origin of the oil palm.
1.2 The oil palm in Africa.
1.3 Development of the oil palm plantation industry.
1.4 World-wide development of the industry, 1950-2001.
1.5 Development methods.
1.6 Trade in and the use of oil palm products.
2. The classification and morphology of the oil palm.
2.1 Classification of oil palms.
2.2 The African oil palm.
2.3 The American palm.
2.4 The Elaeis guineensis X Elaeis oleifera hybrid.
3. The climate and soils of the oil palm-growing regions.
3.3 Total climate and oil palm growth.
3.5 Soils of the oil palm regions.
3.6 Land classification.
4. Growth, flowering and yield.
4.1 Analysis of plant growth.
4.2 Vegetative growth and partitioning of dry matter.
4.3 Environmental and management factors.
5. Selection and Breeding.
5.1 History of Selection.
5.2 Techniques used in oil palm breeding and selection.
5.3 Variation and inheritance.
5.4 Methods of selection and breeding.
5.5 Selection and breeding in practice.
5.6 Oil palm improvemnet in the future.
6. Vegetative propagation and biotechnology.
6.1 History of oil palm tissue culture.
6.2 Tissue culture methods.
6.3 Abnormal flowering, bunch failure and other problems.
6.4 Clone testing.
6.5 The future for oil palm clonal propagation.
6.6 Other aspects of oil palm biotechnology.
7. Seed germination and nurseries.
7.1 Seed germination.
8. Site selection and land preparation.
8.1 Choice of site for oil palm planting.
8.2 Plantation layout.
8.3 Field preparation.
8.4 Uses and covers of interrows.
9. The establishment of oil palms in the field.
9.1 Planting in the field.
9.2 Shortening the immature period.
9.3 Spacing of plants in the field.
9.4 Practical aspects of field establishment.
10. Care and maintenance of oil palms.
10.1 Care of palms and plant cover.
10.2 Field mechanisation.
10.4 Fruit bunch harvesting.
10.5 The oil extraction ratio problem.
10.6 Palm age, replanting and national yield.
10.7 Site potentials in relation to plantation management.
10.8 Smallholder plantations.
11. Mineral nutrition of oil palms.
11.1 General principles of plant nutrition.
11.2 Palm uptake systems.
11.3 Nutrient deficiency and its control: field experiments.
11.4 Nutrient deficiency and its control: visual symtons and leaf analysis.
11.5 Soil composition and plant nutrition.
11.6 Practical systems for fertiliser type and rate assessment.
11.7 Recycling and losses of nutrients.
11.8 Deficiencies and toxicities in special and unusual soils.
11.9 Practical management of fertilisers.
12. Diseases and pests of the oil palm.
12.1 Diseases and disorders.
12.3 Mammals and birds as pests.
12.4 Insect vectors of disease.
12.5 Pests of other components of the oil palm agroecosystem.
13. The products of the oil palm and their extraction.
13.1 Palm oil products and their chemical structure.
13.2 Nut composition.
13.3 Oil synthesis and breakdown in the fruit.
13.4 Extraction of palm products.
13.5 Processing of oil palm products.
13.6 Other oil palm products.
14. Marketing, economies, end use and human health.
14.1 Palm oil marketing.
14.2 Production costs.
14.3 Uses of palm oil and palm kernel oil.
14.4 Palm oil and human health.
15. Concluding remarks.
15.1 Research needs.
15.2 Genetic modification.
15.3 The environment and sustainability.
Reference list and index of citations.
I. Comprehensive coverage of the most up-to-date oil palm research, with explanatory material for the non-specialist in areas such as biotechnology, nutrient uptake and palm oil end-use
II. Practical advice for those in the industry, including details on how to improve site selection, cultivation, production, nutrition, selection and breeding, and pest and disease management
III. There are numerous illustrations, a large full-colour section, and a very comprehensive and up-to-date list of references.