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The Polar Oceans and Their Role in Shaping the Global Environment

The Polar Oceans and Their Role in Shaping the Global Environment

O. M. Johannessen (Editor), R. D. Muench (Editor), J. E. Overland (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66388-2

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

525 pages

Select type: Online Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 85.

On June 24, 1993, one hundred years had passed since Fridtjof Nansen and his companions set out on one of the most daring and exciting research expeditions the world had ever seen. They allowed their vessel, the Fram, to be frozen into the ice close to the New Siberian Islands, in the Arctic Ocean. Three years were to elapse before the ice released its hold on the Fram and allowed her to return to Norway via the strait between Greenland and Spitsbergen, which later came to be known as Fram Strait. The research carried out during Fram's drift in the ice altered forever our concept of the Arctic Basin.

Preface
0. M. Johannessen, R. Muench, and J. E. Overland xi

Fridtjof Nansen—Scientist, Diplomat and Humanist
T. Gjelsvik 1

The Arctic Ocean and Climate: A Perspective
K. Aagaard and E. C. Carmack 5

A Review of Coupled Ice-Ocean Models
G. L. Mellor and S. Hiikkinen 21

On the Intermediate Depth Waters of the Arctic Ocean
B. Rudels, E. P. Jones, L. G. Anderson, and G. Kattner 33

Nutrient-Based Tracers in the Western Arctic: A New Lower Halocine Water Defined
D. K. Salmon and C. P. McRoy 47

The Potential of Barium as a Tracer of Arctic Water Masses
K. K. Falkner, R. W. Macdonald, E. C. Carmack, and T. Weingartner 63

The Northern Barents Sea: Water Mass Distribution and Modification
S. L. Pfirman, D. Bauch, and T. Gammelsrod 77

A Study on the Inflow of Atlantic Water to the GIN Sea Using GEOSAT Altimeter Data
P. Samuel, J. A. Johannessen, and 0. M. Johannessen 95

Observation and Simulation of Ice Tongues and Vortex Pairs in the Marginal Ice Zone
0. M. Johannessen, S. Sandven, W. P. Budge/l, J. A. Johannessen, and R. A. Schuchman 109

The Arctic Ocean Tides
Z. KowaIlk and A. Y. Proshutinsky 137

Distribution of Water Masses on the Continental Shelf in the Southern Weddell Sea
T. GammelsrOd, A. Foldvik, 0. A. NOst, 0. Skagseth, L. G. Anderson, E. Fogelqvist, K. Olsson, T. Tanhua, E. P. Jones, and S. Osterus 159

228Ra and 228Th in the Weddell Sea
M. M. Rutgers van der Loeff 177

Modelling the Extent of Sea Ice Ridging in the Weddell Sea
M. Harder and P. Lemke 187

Thermobaric Convection
R. W. Garwood, Jr., S. M. Isakari, and P. C. Gallacher 199

Oceanic Convection in the Greenland Sea Odden Region as Interpreted in Satellite Data
F. D. Carsey and A. T. Roach 211

Transport of Biogenic Particulate Matter to Depth Within the Greenland Sea
T. 0. Manley and W. 0. Smith, Jr. 223

Modelling of Deep-Sea Gravity Currents Using an Integrated Plume Model
G. Alendal, H. Drange, and P. M. Haugan 237

Net Primary Production and Stratification in the Ocean
T. Platt, J. D. Woods, S. Sathyendranath, and W. Barkmann 247

Distribution of Dissolved Inorganic and Organic Carbon in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean
L. G. Anderson, K. Olsson, and A. Skoog 255

Primary Productivity of a Phaeocystis Bloom in the Greenland Sea During Spring, 1989
W. 0. Smith 263

Air-Sea CO, Fluxes in the Southern Ocean Between 25° E and 85° E
A. Poisson, N. Metzl, X. Danet, F. Louanchi, C. Brunet, B. Schauer, B. Bres, and D. Ruiz-Pino 273

Arctic Structural Evolution: Relationship to Paleoceanography
G. L. Johnson, J. Pogrebitsky, and R. Macnab 285

Mid-Pleistocene Climate Shift—The Nansen Connection
W. H. Berger and E. Jansen 295

Variability of the Atmospheric Energy Flux Across 70° N Computed from the GFDL Data Set
J. E. Overland and P. Turet 313

The Influence of Polar Oceans on Interannual Climate Variations
G. Alekseev 327

Sea Ice Thickness Changes and Their Relation to Climate
P. Wadhams 337

Variability in Sea-Ice Thickness Over the North Pole From 1958 to 1992
A. S. McLaren, R. H. Bourke, J. E. Walsh, and R. L. Weaver 363

On the Required Accuracy of Atmospheric Forcing Fields for Driving Dynamic-Thermodynamic Sea Ice Models
H. Fischer and P. Lemke 373

On the Effect of Ocean Circulation on Arctic Ice-Margin Variations
W. D. Hibler, III and J. Zhang 383

On the Surface Heat Fluxes in the Weddell Sea
J. Launiainen and T. Vihma 399

Southern Ocean Wave Fields During the Austral Winters, 1985-1988, by GEOSAT Radar Altimeter
W. J. Campbell, E. G. Josberger, and N. M. Mognard 421

Factors Affecting Variations of Snow Surface Temperature and Air Temperature Over Sea Ice in
Winter
P. S. Guest and K. L. Davidson 435

Aircraft Measured Atmospheric Momentum, Heat and Radiation Fluxes Over Arctic Sea Ice
J. Hartmann, C. Kottmeier, C. Wamser, and E. Augestein 443

Opening and Closing of the ""Husky 1"" Lead Complex
R. W. Fett, K. L. Davidson, and J. E. Overland 455

Polynyas as a Possible Source for Enigmatic Bennett Island Atmospheric Plumes
D. Dethleff 475

Interannual Variability of the Thermohaline Structure in the Convective Gyre of the Greenland Sea
G. V. Alekseev, V. V. Ivanov, and A. A. Korablev 485

Microwave Remote Sensing of the Snow and Ice Cover: The Russian Experience
K. Y. Kondratyev and V. V. Melentyev 497

Short- and Long-Term Temporal Behavior of Polar Sea Ice Covers From Satellite
Passive-Microwave Observations
W. J. Campbell, P. Gloersen, and H. J. Zwally 505

Acoustic Remote Sensing
W. H. Munk 521

Closing Note: A Tribute to Fridtjof Nansen
N. Untersteiner 525