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The Primate Origins of Human Nature

The Primate Origins of Human Nature

Carel P. Van Schaik

ISBN: 978-0-470-14763-4

Jan 2016

560 pages

In Stock

$169.95

Description

The Primate Origins of Human Nature (Volume 3 in The Foundations of Human Biology series) blends several elements from evolutionary biology as applied to primate behavioral ecology and primate psychology, classical physical anthropology and evolutionary psychology of humans.  However, unlike similar books, it strives to define the human species relative to our living and extinct relatives, and thus highlights uniquely derived human features. The book features a truly multi-disciplinary, multi-theory, and comparative species approach to subjects not usually presented in textbooks focused on humans, such as the evolution of culture, life history, parenting, and social organization.
PREFACE xiii

SERIES EDITORS’ PREFACE xvii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xix

SECTION I EVOLUTION, BEHAVIOR AND CULTURE 1

1 Elements of Evolutionary Biology 3

1.1 Darwin’s Argument, 3

1.2 Natural Selection and Fitness, 4

1.3 Adaptation, 5

1.4 Evolution, 10

1.5 Phylogeny and Character Reconstruction, 13

1.6 Evolution as a Historical Science, 18

1.7 Conclusions, 19

2 Basics of Behavioral Biology 21

2.1 Introduction, 21

2.2 Proximate and Ultimate Aspects of Behavior, 21

2.3 Proximate Control of Behavior, 22

2.4 Development of Behavior, 24

2.5 Adaptive Function: Optimality or Evolutionary Stability?, 32

2.6 Levels of Selection, 34

2.7 Behavioral Phylogeny, 39

2.8 Conclusions, 39

3 Social Learning and Culture 41

3.1 Introduction, 41

3.2 Social Learning, 42

3.3 Cultures among Animals, 48

3.4 Human Culture and Cultural Evolution, 51

3.5 A Theory of Cultural Evolution, 55

3.6 Conclusions, 56

4 Evolution and Human Behavior 59

4.1 Introduction, 59

4.2 Integrating Competing Approaches to Human Behavior, 59

4.3 Testing Adaptation in Humans, 63

4.4 How to Deal with Uniqueness?, 67

4.5 Reconstructing our Origins, 68

4.6 Conclusions and Outlook, 70

SECTION II THE HISTORY OF HUMANS 71

5 Ancestors: Humans from a Comparative Perspective 73

5.1 Introduction, 73

5.2 Our Deep History up to the Concestor, 75

5.3 The (Near-) Endpoint: Foragers, 78

5.4 Conclusion: The Gap, 81

6 Human Evolution: A Brief Overview 83

6.1 Introduction, 83

6.2 The First Hominins: The Origins of Bipedalism, 84

6.3 The Australopithecines and Early Homo, 85

6.4 Homo erectus, 86

6.5 Middle Pleistocene Hominins, 89

6.6 Modern Humans: Homo sapiens, 90

6.7 General Trends, 95

6.8 Conclusions, 96

SECTION III SUBSISTENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 99

7 Primate Ecology 101

7.1 Introduction, 101

7.2 Diet, 101

7.3 Seasonality, 104

7.4 Extractive Foraging and Hunting by Primates, 106

7.5 Range Use, 111

7.6 Conclusions, 115

8 Forager Ecology and Subsistence 117

8.1 Introduction, 117

8.2 Diet, 117

8.3 Obtaining Food: Gathering and Hunting, 119

8.4 Fluctuations in Energy Intake, 122

8.5 The Sexual Division of Labor, 123

8.6 Central Place Provisioning, 126

8.7 Paleodiet, Exercise, and Diseases of Civilization, 128

8.8 Conclusions, 129

9 The Evolution of Technology 131

9.1 Introduction, 131

9.2 Tool Use and Technology, 131

9.3 The Evolution of Primate Tool Use, 135

9.4 Nonhuman Primates and Hominins Compared, 138

9.5 Conclusions, 140

SECTION IV SEX AND SEXUAL SELECTION 141

10 Sex, Sexual Selection and Sex Differences 143

10.1 Introduction, 143

10.2 Sexual Reproduction, 143

10.3 Sexual Selection, 144

10.4 Intrasexual Selection, 148

10.5 Mate Choice, 152

10.6 Sex Role Equality and Reversal: Who Competes, Who Chooses?, 156

10.7 Sexual Conflict, 157

10.8 Sex Differences Beyond Weapons and Ornaments, 161

10.9 Conclusions, 162

11 Mating Systems and Sexuality in Primates 163

11.1 Introduction, 163

11.2 Sexual Selection in Primates, 163

11.3 Sex in Mammals: The Mating Problem, 166

11.4 Features of Primate Sexuality, 168

11.5 Explaining the Variation in Primate Sexuality, 170

11.6 Conclusions, 174

12 Human Mating Systems and Sexuality 175

12.1 Introduction, 175

12.2 The Human Mating System: Morphological and Physiological Signals, 175

12.3 The Human Mating System: Ethnography and Behavior, 183

12.4 Mate Choice, 186

12.5 Mating Conflict in Humans, 193

12.6 Gender Differences, 198

12.7 Notable Sexual Behavior, 199

12.8 Conclusions, 202

13 Aesthetic Appreciation and Expression 203

13.1 Introduction, 203

13.2 Physical Beauty, 206

13.3 The Arts, 208

13.4 Conclusions, 212

SECTION V LIFE’S CHANGES 213

14 Life History 215

14.1 Introduction, 215

14.2 General Patterns in Mammalian Life History, 216

14.3 The Evolution of Life History, 217

14.4 Life History and Behavior, 220

14.5 Human Life History, 223

14.6 Conclusions, 231

15 Parenting and Reproductive Investment 233

15.1 Introduction, 233

15.2 Parental Care, 233

15.3 Biparental Care, 234

15.4 Communal Breeding among Primates, 235

15.5 Cooperative Breeding among Primates, 235

15.6 Primate Investment Patterns: Seasonality and Life History, 240

15.7 Pregnancy and Birth, 242

15.8 Allocation Decisions, 243

15.9 Conflicts around Reproduction, 248

15.10 Conclusions, 250

16 Growth and Development 251

16.1 Developmental Stages, 251

16.2 Somatic Growth and Development, 253

16.3 Behavioral Aspects: Bonds, Play, Skill Acquisition, 254

16.4 Human Development, 260

16.5 Plasticity in Development, 261

16.6 Conclusions, 262

SECTION VI SOCIAL LIFE 263

17 Social Life in Nonhuman Primates 265

17.1 Introduction, 265

17.2 Competition and Conflict, 266

17.3 Group Living and Its Function, 271

17.4 How to Live in a Group?, 276

17.5 Conclusions, 280

18 Primate Socioeclogy 281

18.1 Socioecology, 281

18.2 The Socioecological Paradigm, 281

18.3 Female Sociality, 284

18.4 Males and Females, 287

18.5 Male Sociality, 289

18.6 Social Evolution in Primates, 296

18.7 Conclusions, 298

19 Social Evolution in Hominins 299

19.1 Introduction, 299

19.2 The Social Organization of Foragers, 299

19.3 The Key Features of Human Social Organization, 301

19.4 The Evolution of Human Pair Bonds, 302

19.5 The Evolution of Human Social Organization, 304

19.6 Human Social Evolution since the Neolithic Period, 308

19.7 Changes in Historical Time, 311

19.8 Human Social Life: Politics, 311

19.9 Conclusions, 313

SECTION VII COOPERATION 315

20 Cooperation in Nature 317

20.1 The Challenge of Cooperation, 317

20.2 The Evolution of Cooperation in Nonhuman Primates, 319

20.3 The Proximate Regulation of Primate Cooperation, 325

20.4 Human Cooperation in Small-scale Societies, 328

20.5 Human Cooperation in Large-scale Societies, 333

20.6 Conclusions, 335

21 Warfare 337

21.1 Introduction, 337

21.2 The Phylogeny of War: Between-group Contests among Animals, 337

21.3 Human Warfare and Its Cultural Evolution, 341

21.4 War as an Adaptation, 345

21.5 The Proximate Control of Warfare, 347

21.6 Conclusions, 350

22 Morality 351

22.1 Introduction, 351

22.2 Biology and Morality, 352

22.3 The Biological Basis of Human Morality, 353

22.4 Cultural Influences on Human Morality, 357

22.5 Phylogeny and Morality, 359

22.6 Philosophical Implications, 360

22.7 Conclusions, 361

23 Religion 363

23.1 Introduction, 363

23.2 The History of Religion, 364

23.3 Proximate Processes, 365

23.4 The Changing Function(s) of Religion, 369

23.5 Religion and Science, 371

23.6 Creationism and Intelligent Design, 372

23.7 Conclusions, 372

SECTION VIII THE COGNITIVE ANIMAL 375

24 The Evolution of Brain Size 377

24.1 Brains and Energy Constraints, 377

24.2 The Expensive Brain: Life-history Costs of Brain Size Increase, 382

24.3 Explaining Variation in (Relative) Brain Size: Life-history Filters, 385

24.4 Explaining the Increase in Hominin Brain Size, 387

24.5 Conclusions, 388

25 The Evolution of Primate Cognition 389

25.1 Introduction, 389

25.2 The Cognitive Skills of Primates, 391

25.3 Grade Shifts: Monkeys, Apes, and Humans, 396

25.4 Cognitive Development, 400

25.5 The Structure of Primate Cognition, 401

25.6 The Evolution of Primate and Human Cognition, 405

25.7 Conclusions, 411

26 Human Language 413

26.1 Introduction, 413

26.2 Animal Communication, 414

26.3 Human Language, 419

26.4 The Functional Uses of Language, 422

26.5 The Evolutionary History of Language, 424

26.6 Language Development, 425

26.7 Language and Cultural Evolution, 426

26.8 Language and Cognition, 427

26.9 Conclusions, 428

SECTION IX CONCLUSIONS 429

27 What Made Us Humans? A Preliminary Synthesis 431

27.1 Mind the Gaps, 431

27.2 The Ape Within Us, 432

27.3 The Cooperative Breeder and Hunter in Us, 433

27.4 Uniquely Human, 437

27.5 Novel Expressions of Human Nature, 439

REFERENCES 443

GLOSSARY 491

INDEX 501