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The Proton Launcher: History and Developments

The Proton Launcher: History and Developments

Christian Lardier, Stefan Barensky

ISBN: 978-1-119-51053-6

Feb 2018, Wiley-ISTE

400 pages

Description

The Soviet / Russian space program was in the hands of three industrial empires: those of Serguei Korolev, the Soviet von Braun who launched Sputnik-1 and Yuri Gagarin, Vladimir Tchelomei, his main competitor, and Mikhail Yangel, Many launchers and satellites in Ukraine.
In 2011, we published a first book on the history of the Soyuz launcher that was developed by Korolev and launched more than 1,800 copies. This time, we tell the story of the Proton, the main competitor of the European launcher Ariane, which was developed by Chelomei and launched more than 400 copies. Finally, the last book of the trilogy will deal with the many developments of Yangel. In the three books, the first part deals with the history of rockets in the USSR / Russia (East) and the second part on the history of their commercialization in the West.

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Foreword ix

Preface xi

Part 1. The Proton in the East 1

Chapter 1. Vladimir Chelomey: From the V1 to Proton 3

1.1. The Soviet V-1 designer 5

1.2. The designer of Soviet naval missiles 13

Chapter 2. Chelomey’s Subsidiaries 29

2.1. Institute no. 642 29

2.2. Myasishchev’s OKB-23 31

2.3. Factory no. 23 in Fili 42

2.4. Lavochkin’s OKB-301 47

2.5. Factory no. 292 in Saratov 49

2.6. Factory no. 47 in Orenburg 50

2.7. The engine designers 51

Chapter 3. Intercontinental Missiles, Booster Rockets and Satellites 61

3.1. Kosmoplan and Raketoplan 65

3.2. The UR-200 67

3.3. The UR-500 80

3.4. The UR-100 88

3.5. The UR-700 96

3.6. The UR-1000 101

Chapter 4. Versions of the UR-500 103

4.1. The two-stage version 103

4.2. The three-stage version UR-500K 115

4.3. The four-stage version 117

4.4. The upper stage projects 123

4.5. The UR-500MK 125

4.6. The UR-530 126

4.7. The Proton-M 127

4.8. Proton medium and light 130

4.9. Angara 131

Chapter 5. The Uses of the Proton 139

5.1. NPO Mashinostroyenie: the Almaz program 139

5.2. RKK Energiya 151

5.2.1. The 7K-L1 program 151

5.2.2. The DOS program 153

5.3. NPO Lavochkin 162

5.3.1. The Luna program 162

5.3.2. The Mars program 167

5.3.3. The Venera program 174

5.3.4. Scientific probes 176

5.3.5. The Oko early warning satellites 177

5.3.6. The Araks/Arkon optical imaging satellites 180

5.4. Applied mechanics NPO 181

5.4.1. Telecommunications satellites 181

5.4.2. The Glonass navigation satellites 187

5.5. Other satellites 188

5.6. The centennial celebration of V. N. Chelomey’s birth 189

Part 2. The Proton in the West 197

Chapter 6. Saturn’s Rival 199

6.1. Records to break 201

6.2. Target: Moon 204

6.3. Under a shroud of secrecy 209

6.4. No second place 217

Chapter 7. Commercial Prehistory 221

7.1. Swiss francs for invisible launchers 224

7.2. Curtain raiser 226

7.3. Regime change 229

7.4. A market to be cornered 232

7.5. The American friend 236

7.6. Short-lived contracts and seduction operations 239

7.7. The end of an era 243

Chapter 8. Friends or Foes 247

8.1. First hope for success 248

8.2. Lockheed joins the fray 253

8.3. Voyage to Moscow 256

8.4. Telephony in the sky 260

8.5. Khrunichev, Salyut and Energiya 263

8.6. The Indian obstacle 266

8.7. Detour through France 267

8.8. First steps on the market 270

Chapter 9. The Transatlantic Alliance 275

9.1. Reduced quotas 277

9.2. Baptism of fire 279

9.3. A “Russified” Atlas 284

9.4. Discrete success and a spectacular failure 286

9.5. Keeping pace with Ariane 289

9.6. Energiya’s game 294

9.7. Opening up to the market 297

Chapter 10. Standing the Test of the Market 301

10.1. Transition 306

10.2. Price war 311

10.3. Divorce 316

10.4. Challenges for the future 319

10.5. A surprising rival 324

10.6. From Proton to Angara 327

Appendix 331

Bibliography 357

Index 367

Index of Names 369