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The Sourcebook for Teaching Science, Grades 6-12: Strategies, Activities, and Instructional Resources

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The Sourcebook for Teaching Science, Grades 6-12: Strategies, Activities, and Instructional Resources

Norman Herr

ISBN: 978-0-787-97298-1 August 2008 Jossey-Bass 608 Pages

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The Sourcebook for Teaching Science is a unique, comprehensive resource designed to give middle and high school science teachers a wealth of information that will enhance any science curriculum. Filled with innovative tools, dynamic activities, and practical lesson plans that are grounded in theory, research, and national standards, the book offers both new and experienced science teachers powerful strategies and original ideas that will enhance the teaching of physics, chemistry, biology, and the earth and space sciences.

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About the Author vii

Acknowledgments xi

PART ONE Developing Scientific Literacy 1

1 Building a Scientific Vocabulary 3

For the Teacher 3

1.1 Biology Vocabulary 4

1.2 Chemistry Vocabulary 15

1.3 Physics Vocabulary 24

1.4 Earth and Space Science Vocabulary 28

Answers to Chapter Activities 33

2 Developing Science Reading Skills 35

For the Teacher 35

2.1 Science Reading Comprehension: Cloze 38

2.2 Science Reading Comprehension: Jigsaw 39

2.3 Science Vocabulary in Spanish and English 39

2.4 Scientific Terminology: Linking Languages 41

Answers to Chapter Activities 42

3 Developing Science Writing Skills 45

For the Teacher 45

3.1 Science Note Taking 46

3.2 Science Journaling 47

3.3 Science Essay Questions 49

3.4 Types of Science Writing 51

3.5 Science Writing Style 53

Answers to Chapter Activities 57

4 Science, Technology, and Society 58

For the Teacher 58

4.1 Science and Society 59

4.2 Science and Other Subjects 61

4.3 Careers in Science 67

4.4 Science and Technological Innovation 70

Answers to Chapter Activities 74

PART TWO Developing Scientific Reasoning 77

5 Employing Scientific Methods 79

For the Teacher 79

5.1 Discrepant Events: Establishing a “Need to Know” 80

5.2 Developing Scientifically Oriented Questions 83

5.3 Observation Versus Inference 86

5.4 Brainstorming and Hypothesizing 87

5.5 Experimental Design 90

5.6 Independent Variables 92

5.7 Writing Clear Procedures 94

5.8 Using History to Teach Scientific Methods 95

5.9 Indirect Evidence: “Black Box” Experiments 99

5.10 Evaluating Hypotheses 101

Answers to Chapter Activities 102

6 Developing Scientific Reasoning Skills 106

For the Teacher 106

6.1 Levels of Reasoning 108

6.2 Inductive Reasoning 111

6.3 Deductive Reasoning 116

6.4 Lateral Thinking 121

Answers to Chapter Activities 122

7 Thinking Critically and Resolving Misconceptions 125

For the Teacher 125

7.1 Critical Thinking 126

7.2 Evaluating Claims 129

7.3 Using a Decision-Making Matrix 131

7.4 Misconceptions in Physics 132

7.5 Misconceptions in Chemistry 135

7.6 Misconceptions in Biology 137

7.7 Misconceptions in Earth and Space Science 139

Answers to Chapter Activities 142

PART THREE Developing Scientific Understanding 149

8 Organizing Science Information and Concepts 151

For the Teacher 151

8.1 Advance Organizers 153

8.2 Orders of Magnitude: The Universe in Powers of Ten 154

8.3 Organizational Hierarchy in Biology 157

8.4 Organization of the Chemistry Curriculum 161

8.5 Organization of the Physics Curriculum 161

8.6 Earth Systems Interactions 162

Answers to Chapter Activities 165

9 Graphic Organizers for Science 168

For the Teacher 168

9.1 Conceptual Grids 169

9.2 Venn Diagrams 172

9.3 Flowcharts 174

9.4 Mind Maps 176

9.5 Concept Maps 178

Answers to Chapter Activities 182

10 Learning Science Concepts with Analogies 184

For the Teacher 184

10.1 Extended Science Analogies 187

10.2 Analogies for Learning Physics 195

10.3 Analogies for Learning Chemistry 197

10.4 Analogies for Learning Biology 198

10.5 Analogies for Learning Earth and Space Science 199

Answers to Chapter Activities 200

11 Tools for Improving Memory in Science 203

For the Teacher 203

11.1 The Primacy and Recency Effect 211

11.2 Expanding Short-Term Memory by Chunking 211

11.3 Science Acronyms and Abbreviations 215

11.4 Acrostics for Memorizing Lists 216

Answers to Chapter Activities 219

12 Structure and Function in Science 225

For the Teacher 225

12.1 Form and Function in Machines 226

12.2 Structure and Function in Anatomyand Physiology 229

12.3 Structure and Function in Plants 233

12.4 Structure and Function at a Molecular Level 235

12.5 Model Building 238

Answers to Chapter Activities 239

13 Games for Learning Science 243

For the Teacher 243

13.1 Science Jeopardy 244

13.2 Science Taboo 247

13.3 Science Bingo 248

13.4 Science Pictionary 248

13.5 Science Bowl 250

13.6 Science Baseball 252

13.7 What in the World? 252

13.8 Twenty Questions 255

13.9 Logic Games 256

PART FOUR Developing Scientific Problem-Solving Skills 259

14 Science Word Problems 261

For the Teacher 261

14.1 Translating Common Words into Mathematical Symbols 263

14.2 Translating Natural Language into Algebraic Expressions 264

14.3 Translating Algebraic Expressions into Natural Language 266

Answers to Chapter Activities 268

15 Geometric Principles in Science 270

For the Teacher 270

15.1 Developing Measurement Scales 271

15.2 Indirect Measurement in Science 273

15.3 Ratios for Solving Problems in Science 275

15.4 Surface Area to Volume Ratios 277

15.5 Surface Area to Volume Ratios in Living Systems 279

15.6 The Inverse Square Law in the Physical Sciences 283

15.7 Scientific Applications of Conic Sections 287

Answers to Chapter Activities 290

16 Diagramming and Visualizing Problems in Science 293

For the Teacher 293

16.1 Vector Diagrams 295

16.2 Interpreting Scientific Diagrams 298

16.3 Pictorial Riddles 301

16.4 Analyzing Photographs  04

16.5 Digital Movies and Animations 310

16.6 Extrapolation 316

16.7 Interactive Scientific Simulations 318

Answers to Chapter Activities 319

17 Dimensional Analysis 322

For the Teacher 322

17.1 Unit Measures 326

17.2 Fundamental Quantities 329

17.3 SI and Non-SI Units 332

17.4 CGS and MKS Units 334

17.5 Discovering Physical Laws Using Fundamental Units 335

17.6 Simplifying Calculations with the Line Method 337

17.7 Solving Problems with Dimensional Analysis 339

Answers to Chapter Activities 346

18 Stoichiometry: Interactions of Matter 351

For the Teacher 351

18.1 Predicting Oxidation States and Ions 354

18.2 Predicting Polyatomic Ions, Reactants,and Products 360

18.3 Techniques for Balancing Equations 363

Answers to Chapter Activities 366

PART FIVE Developing Scientific Research Skills 371

19 Scientific Databases 373

For the Teacher 373

19.1 Databases in Chemistry 374

19.2 Databases in Biology 378

19.3 Databases in Health 382

19.4 Databases in Earth and Space Science 385

19.5 Databases in Physics 387

Answers to Chapter Activities 389

20 Spreadsheets, Graphs, and Scientific Data Analysis 392

For the Teacher 392

20.1 Calculations and Computer Modeling 394

20.2 Relating Graphs to Real-World Experiences 398

20.3 Graphing Stories 400

20.4 Scatter and Line Graphs 402

20.5 Column and Bar Graphs 406

20.6 Pie and Area Graphs 410

20.7 High-Low, Combination, and Log Plots 413

20.8 Statistics 418

Answers to Chapter Activities 420

21 Mapping and Visualizing Scientific Data 426

For the Teacher 426

21.1 Map Construction 427

21.2 Topographic Maps 428

21.3 Mapping Data Electronically 434

21.4 Weather Maps 438

21.5 Environmental Maps 444

21.6 Astronomy Maps 446

21.7 Interpreting Aerial and Satellite Photographs 452

Answers to Chapter Activities 454

22 Science Inquiry and Research 458

For the Teacher 458

22.1 Inquiry 459

22.2 Sensors and Probeware 461

22.3 Problem-Based Learning 465

22.4 Forums and Debates 466

22.5 Rotating Laboratories 468

22.6 Citing Research 470

Answers to Chapter Activities 471

23 Science Projects and Fairs 473

For the Teacher 473

23.1 Writing Research Questions 474

23.2 Developing a Research Proposal 486

23.3 Conducting Research 487

23.4 Sharing Your Findings 488

Answers to Chapter Activities 490

PART SIX Resources for Teaching Science 491

24 Science Curriculum and Instruction 493

24.1 The Nature of Science 493

24.2 Theories and Perspectives in Science Education 496

24.3 Developments in Science Curriculum and Instruction 498

24.4 The Science Curriculum 502

24.5 Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Curricula 504

24.6 Teaching Science Inquiry 506

24.7 Teaching Science to English Language Learners 508

24.8 Teaching Science with Humor  511

24.9 Professional Development in Science Education 513

24.10 Science Field Trips and Guest Speakers 515

25 Planning and Managing Science Instruction 517

25.1 Establishing Science Learning Objectives 517

25.2 Developing a Science Lesson Plan 517

25.3 Developing a Science Semester Plan 519

25.4 Getting to Know Your Students 519

25.5 Managing the Classroom Effectively 522

25.6 Assessing Student Performance 525

25.7 Evaluating Teaching Performance 528

26 The Science Laboratory 529

26.1 Equipping the Science Laboratory 529

26.2 Writing Successful Grant Proposals 533

26.3 Common and Inexpensive Sources of Chemicals 534

26.4 Preparing Solutions 538

26.5 Laboratory Safety 540

26.6 Safety Equipment Checklist 540

26.7 Chemical Hazards and Storage 542

26.8 Disposal of Chemicals 546

26.9 Accidents 547

27 Science Reference Information 549

27.1 Writing Style Guidelines 549

27.2 Units, Constants, and Conversions 551

27.3 Chemical Properties 554

27.4 Graph Paper, Protractors, and Rulers 559

Notes 567

Index 577

Sourcebook for Teaching Science website Visit this site for numerous interactive resources and downloadable files for teaching and learning science. Resources mirror the book's Table of Contents for quick access and relevance.
  • One-stop comprehensive access to the best ideas, activities, and practical tools for teaching science.
  • More than 230 high-quality activities, lab experiments and exercises with extensive background material.
  • Inquiry-oriented approach stimulates student interest and engagement.
  • Strongly grounded in theory, research, standards, and the classroom practice and proficiency-building emphases apply across the content disciplines.
  • Offers excellent ‘bridge to practice’ for pre-service science teachers.
  • Features companion website with connections to internet resources and free supplementary resources (www.csun.edu/science)