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The Sustainable Laboratory Handbook: Design, Equipment, and Operation

The Sustainable Laboratory Handbook: Design, Equipment, and Operation

Egbert Dittrich (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-33567-1

Jun 2015

592 pages

In Stock

$215.00

Description

The first comprehensive guide to modern laboratory planning in ten years to address both construction and operating aspects.

Many of the 30 authors are affiliated with the European Association for Sustainable Laboratory Technologies (EGNATON), which has also endorsed this ready reference. This expert team covers the entire lifecycle of a laboratory facility, starting with the site layout and the planning of the building, followed by the planning of such areas as housing for laboratory animals, clean rooms and production facilities. The next section of the book deals with the installation of laboratory equipment, including storage and emergency facilities, while the final parts address safety and sustainability standards applicable to laboratories, as well as facility management and optimization during normal laboratory operation.

The relevant norms and standards are cited throughout, and examples from recent construction sites are also presented. Hundreds of photographs and drawings, many in full color, provide visual examples of the design and building concepts. As a result, readers will learn how to construct and maintain efficient and long-serving laboratory spaces with a minimum of maintenance costs and a maximum of safety.

An invaluable, practical guide for planners, builders and managers of chemical, biological and medical research laboratories of any size.

List of Contributors XXIII

Preface XXVII

Part I Laboratory Building and Laboratory Equipment – Subjects of Laboratory Design of Building and Equipment 1
Egbert Dittrich

1 Introduction: Laboratory Typologies 3
Christoph Heinekamp

1.1 Purpose 4

1.2 Science Direction 5

1.3 Fields of Activities 6

1.4 Working Methods 8

1.5 Physical Structure 8

1.6 Conclusion 12

2 Requirements and Determination of Requirements 13
Christoph Heinekamp

2.1 Area Misuse throughWrong Grids 16

3 Laboratory Concept andWorkstations 21
Christoph Heinekamp

4 Determination of User Needs – Goal-Oriented Communication between Planners and Users as a Basis for Sustainable Building 31
Berthold Schiemenz and Stefan Krause

4.1 Work Areas 33

4.2 Work Flows and Room Groups 34

5 Corporate Architecture – Architecture of Knowledge 37
Tobias Ell

5.1 Image-The Laboratory as a Brand 38

5.2 Innovation-The Laboratory as the Origin of Knowledge 39

5.3 Excellence: The Laboratory as a Magnet for High Potentials 40

6 Scheduler Tasks in the Planning Process 43
Markus Hammes

6.1 Project Preparation 44

6.2 Integral Planning Teams 44

6.3 User Participation 45

6.4 Planning Process 45

6.5 Execution Phase 46

6.6 Commissioning 46

6.7 Conclusion 47

6.8 Best Practice 47

7 Space for Communication in the Laboratory Building 55
Markus Hammes

7.1 Definition of Terms 55

7.2 Historical Development 56

7.3 Development in the Modern Age- Why and When Were These Ideal Conceptions Lost? 57

7.4 Conclusion for Future Concepts 61

8 Fire Precautions 63
Markus Bauch

8.1 Preventive Fire Protection 63

8.2 Fire Protection Solution for Laboratory Buildings 69

8.3 Fire Protection Solutions for Laboratory Buildings – Examples 70

Part II Layout of Technical Building Trades 77
Egbert Dittrich

9 Development in Terms of Building Technology and Requirements of Technical Building Equipment 81
Hermann Zeltner

9.1 Field of Research 82

9.2 Required Flexibility of Laboratory Areas 83

9.3 Number of Floors, Height of the Floor, and Development Extent of the Laboratory Area (Laboratory Landscape) 85

9.4 Plumbing Services 86

9.5 Electrical Installation 88

9.6 Ventilation 89

9.7 Determination and Optimization of the Air Changes Quantities and Definition of Air Systems Required 90

9.8 Creation of an Energy-Optimized Duct System 93

10 Ventilation and Air Conditioning Technology 95
Roland Rydzewski

10.1 Introduction 95

10.2 Air Supply of Laboratory Rooms 96

10.3 Air-Flow Routing in the Room 99

10.4 Numerical Flow Simulation (Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)) 102

10.5 Energy-Efficient Systems Engineering 110

10.6 Installation Concepts for Laboratory Buildings from the Point of View of Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Planning 114

11 Electrical Installations 119
Oliver Engel

11.1 Power Supply 119

11.2 Lightings 126

11.3 Data Networks 127

11.4 Central Building Control System 129

12 Service Systems via Ceiling 133
Hansjürg Lüdi

12.1 General Discussion 133

12.2 Flexible Laboratory Room Sizes/Configuration 134

12.3 Major Differentiating Components 139

13 Laboratory Logistics 145
Ines Merten

13.1 Classic Systems 145

13.2 Centralization and Implementation of Logistics Systems in the Building 146

13.3 Consignment and Automatic Storage Facilities 148

13.4 Solvents – Supply and Disposal Systems 150

13.5 LaboratoryWork 2030 – Objective? 152

13.6 From Small Areas to the Big Picture 153

13.7 Local Transport Systems 153

13.8 Supply and Disposal of Chemicals at theWorkplace 153

13.9 Perspective 154

14 Animal Housing 157
Ina-Maria Müller-Stahn

14.1 General Points 157

14.2 Planning of an Animal Facility 158

14.3 SPF Management of Animals 159

14.4 Animal Management under SPF Status 164

14.5 Decentralized Connection of IVC 165

14.6 Central Connection 165

14.7 Extract Air 165

14.8 Supply through the Barrier 166

14.9 Quarantine 167

14.10 Open Animal Management without Hygiene Requirements 167

14.11 Experimental Animal Facility 168

14.12 Sustainability – An Issue in an Animal Facility? 168

15 Technical Research Centers – Examples of Highly Sophisticated Laboratory Planning Which Cannot be Schematized 171
Thomas Lischke and Maike Ring

16 Clean Rooms 175
Thomas Lischke

16.1 Wall materials 178

16.2 Ceilings 179

16.3 Fixtures and fittings 179

17 Safety Laboratories 181
Michael Staniszewski

17.1 General Remark 181

17.2 Types of Safety Laboratories 182

17.3 Building Structures 190

Part III Laboratory Casework and Installations 195
Egbert Dittrich

18 Laboratory Casework 197
Egbert Dittrich

18.1 Design 197

18.2 Functionality and Flexibility 200

18.3 Trends 201

19 Work Benches, Sinks, Storage, Supply- and Disposal Systems 203
Egbert Dittrich

19.1 Benches 203

19.2 Sinks 204

19.3 Under Bench Units, Cabinets, Storage Cabinets 208

19.4 Supply and Disposal Systems 211

19.5 Service Carrying Frames 215

20 Fume Cupboards and Ventilated Units 225
Egbert Dittrich

20.1 Technical Data and Selection Criteria 225

20.2 Fume Cupboards and Sustainability 231

20.3 Ventilation Control and Monitoring 231

20.4 Fume Cupboard Monitoring, -Control and Room Control 234

20.5 Laboratory Control 235

20.6 Sash Controller 238

21 Laboratory Furniture Made fromStainless Steel – for Clean-Rooms, Labs, Medical-, and Industry Applications 241
Eberhard Dürr

21.1 Areas for Stainless Steel Equipment 241

21.2 Hygienic Requirements of Surfaces 242

21.3 How to Clean and Disinfect Stainless Steel Surfaces 243

21.4 Cleanliness Classes for Sterile Areas 245

21.5 Microorganisms 246

21.6 Summary 253

22 Clean Benches and Microbiological Safety Cabinets 255
Walter Glück

22.1 Laboratory Clean Air Instrument, in General and Definition(s) 255

22.2 Possible Joint Possession of “Clean Benches” and “Microbiological Safety Cabinets” 256

22.3 Laboratory Clean Air Instruments Intended to Protect the Samples – “Clean Benches” 258

22.4 Microbiological Safety Cabinets 261

22.5 Microbiological Safety Cabinet Class 1 263

22.6 Microbiological Safety Cabinets Class 2 265

22.7 Enhanced Microbiological Safety Cabinets Class 2 266

22.8 Enhanced Safety of Safety Cabinet Class 2 by Means of Redundant HEPA Filter(s) 269

22.9 Microbiological Safety Cabinet Class 3 271

22.10 Inactivation of Cabinet and Filters 271

23 Safety Cabinets 273
Christian Völk

23.1 History – the Development of the Safety Cabinet 273

23.2 Safety Cabinets for Flammable Liquids 274

23.3 Safety Cabinets for Pressurized Gas Cylinders 285

23.4 Safety Cabinets for Acids and Lyes 289

23.5 Test Markings for Safety Cabinets 291

23.6 Special Solutions for the Storage of Flammable Liquids 292

24 Laboratory Service Fittings forWater, Fuel Gases, and Technical Gases 297
Thomas Gasdorf

24.1 Medium 297

24.2 Temperature 297

24.3 Dosing Task 298

24.4 Safety 298

24.5 Place of Installation 298

24.6 Ease of Installation 298

24.7 Materials 299

24.8 Headwork 300

24.9 Seals 300

24.10 According to Standard 300

24.11 Water 300

24.12 Conclusion 305

24.13 Burning Gas 307

24.14 Technical Gases up to 4.5 Purity Grade 310

24.15 Vacuum 313

25 Gases and Gas Supply Systems for Ultra-Pure Gases up to Purity 6.0 317
Franz Wermelinger

25.1 Gases and Status Types 317

25.2 Material Compatibility 319

25.3 Connection Points 319

25.4 Impurities 319

25.5 Supply Systems: Central Building Supply/Local Supply and Laboratory Supply 320

25.6 Central Building Supply (CBS) 323

25.7 Pipe Networks and Zone Shut-Off Valves with Filter 324

25.8 Fitting Supports and Tapping Spots 325

25.9 Local Laboratory Gas Supply 327

25.10 Surfaces – Coatings 327

25.11 Inspections 328

25.12 Operation Start-Up and Instruction of the Operating Staff 328

26 Emergency Devices 333
Thomas Gasdorf

26.1 General 333

26.2 Body Showers 334

26.3 Eye-Washer 334

26.4 Emergency Shower Combinations 334

26.5 Hygiene 335

26.6 Testing and Maintenance 335

26.7 Complementary Products 335

Part IV Sustainability and Laboratory Operation 339

27 Sustainability Certification – Assessment Criteria and Suggestions 341
Egbert Dittrich

27.1 Certification Systems 342

27.2 Individual Strategies to Implement Sustainability 345

28 Reducing Laboratory Energy Use with Demand-Based Control 351
Gordon P. Sharp

28.1 Reducing Fume Cupboard Flows 351

28.2 ReduceThermal Load Flow Drivers 352

28.3 Vary and Reduce Average ACH Rate Using Demand-Based Control 353

28.4 A New Sensing Approach Provides a Cost-Effective Solution 354

28.5 Demand-Based Control (DBC) Improves Beam Use 355

28.6 A Few Comments on New Lab Ventilation Standards and Guidelines 356

28.7 Case Studies 357

28.8 Capital Cost Reduction Impacts of Demand-Based Control 361

28.9 Conclusions on Lab Energy Efficient Control Approaches 362

References 362

29 Lab Ventilation and Energy Consumption 363
Peter Dockx

29.1 Introduction 363

29.2 Step 1: Minimize Demand! 365

29.3 Step 2: Design Energy Friendly Systems 369

29.4 Step 3: Install and Proper Commission the Installation 374

29.5 Step 4: Maintain the Installation and Monitor 374

29.6 Step 5: Use of Alternative Energy 375

29.7 Conclusion 378

30 Consequences of the 2009 Energy-Saving Ordinance for Laboratories 379
Fritz Runge and Jörg Petri

30.1 The Task Force 379

30.2 Energy Certificates for Laboratory Buildings 380

30.3 Special Energy Characteristics of Laboratory Buildings 385

30.4 Reference Values for the Energy Consumption of Laboratory Buildings 386

30.5 Energy Consumption Values 387

30.6 Reference Quantities 387

30.7 Groups with Homogeneous Characteristics 391

30.8 Conclusions from the Results of the Investigations 392

30.9 Example for the Issue of a Consumption-Based Energy Certificate for a Laboratory Building 394

30.10 Summary 396

Part V Standards and Test Regulations 399
Egbert Dittrich

31 Legislation and Standards 401
Burkhard Winter

31.1 Introduction 401

31.2 Laboratory Planning and Building 402

31.3 Regulations for Labor Safety and Occupational Health 406

References 410

32 Examination, Requirements, and Handling of Fume Cupboards 413
Bernhard Mohr and Bernd Schubert

32.1 Introduction 413

32.2 Principle of Operation 414

32.3 Types of Fume Cupboards 417

32.4 Standards 424

32.5 Safety Criterion 427

32.6 Fume Cupboard Testing 429

32.7 Influences of Real Conditions 432

Part VI Safety in Laboratories 437
Egbert Dittrich

33 Health and Safety – An Inherent Part of Sustainability 439
Thomas Brock

33.1 Scope 439

33.2 Legal Foundations 441

33.3 Laboratory Guidelines 443

33.4 Hazardous Substances 446

33.5 Biological Agents 446

33.6 Other Hazards 447

33.7 Occurrence of Accidents and Illnesses 448

33.8 Risk Assessment and Measures 449

References 454

34 Operational Safety in Laboratories 455
Norbert Teufelhart

34.1 Safety Principles 455

34.2 Safety Management 456

34.3 Regulation of Internal Processes 459

34.4 Functional Efficiency of Systems and Equipment 462

34.5 Occupational Medical Care 463

34.6 Employment Restrictions 465

34.7 Access Regulations and Protection againstTheft 466

34.8 Cleanliness and Hygiene 467

34.9 Operation of Safety Systems According to Regulations 472

34.10 Operational Safety in Laboratories – Conclusion 479

34.11 Laboratory Rules and Regulations (Sample) 480

34.12 Testing Equipment Registry (Sample) 486

34.13 Screening Examinations for Laboratory Activities (Selection) 488

34.14 Skin Protection Plan (Sample) 492

References 495

Part VII Laboratory Operation 497
Helmut Martens

35 Facility Management in the Life Cycle of Laboratory Buildings 499
Andreas Kühne and Ali-Yetkin Özcan

35.1 Self-Understanding and Background 499

35.2 Process Optimization 500

35.3 FM in the Life Cycle of a Laboratory Building 500

35.4 Concept Phase Laboratory Building 502

35.5 Construction Phase 504

35.6 Use Phase 504

35.7 Revitalization Phase 505

35.8 Deconstructing Phase 507

35.9 Benefits of FM 507

36 Laboratory Optimization 509
Helmut Martens

36.1 The Procedure 510

36.2 The Actual Recording 511

36.3 Determination of the Optimization Potential 512

36.4 Planning and Implementation 513

36.5 Permanent Need for Optimization 514

36.6 An Example 515

36.7 Utilization of Staff 516

36.8 Utilization of Equipment 517

36.9 Employee Retention, Employee Retention Time, Device Runtime 518

36.10 Another Example 518

36.11 Cost 518

36.12 Logistics 519

36.13 Quality 520

36.14 Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty 520

36.15 Laboratory Indicators 521

37 Quality Management 523
Helmut Martens

37.1 Quality Control 523

37.2 Quality Assurance 523

37.3 Quality Management 523

37.4 Creation and Maintenance of a Quality Management System 524

37.5 The Purpose of Systematic Quality Management 525

37.6 Integrated Management Systems 525

37.7 Certification or Accreditation 526

37.8 International Recognition of Accreditation 527

37.9 Central Functions of Quality Management 527

37.10 Responsibilities of the Quality Manager in Practice 529

37.11 Implementation of a Quality Management System in the Laboratory 529

37.12 Documents 530

37.13 Expiration of Accreditation Project 532

38 Data 535
Helmut Martens

38.1 Data Systems 536

38.2 Data Systems at the Corporate Management Level 536

38.3 LIMS 537

38.4 LIMS Selection and Procurement 537

38.5 Requirements for a Specification 540

38.6 Selection of Suitable Suppliers 541

38.7 Data Privacy and Data Security 542

38.8 Risk Assessment 543

38.9 Safety Management 544

38.10 System Documentation 546

38.11 Emergency Plan 547

Index 549