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The Telecommunications Handbook: Engineering Guidelines for Fixed, Mobile and Satellite Systems

The Telecommunications Handbook: Engineering Guidelines for Fixed, Mobile and Satellite Systems

Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

ISBN: 978-1-118-67888-6

Jan 2015

1008 pages

$202.99

Description

This practical handbook and reference provides a complete understanding of the telecommunications field supported by descriptions and case examples throughout

Taking a practical approach, The Telecommunications Handbook examines the principles and details of all of the major and modern telecommunications systems currently available to industry and to end-users. It gives essential information about usage, architectures, functioning, planning, construction, measurements and optimisation. The structure of the book is modular, giving both overall descriptions of the architectures and functionality of typical use cases, as well as deeper and practical guidelines for telecom professionals.

The focus of the book is on current and future networks, and the most up-to-date functionalities of each network are described in sufficient detail for deployment purposes. The contents include an introduction to each technology, its evolution path, feasibility and utilization, solution and network architecture, and technical functioning of the systems (signalling, coding, different modes for channel delivery and security of core and radio system). The planning of the core and radio networks (system-specific field test measurement guidelines, hands-on network planning advices and suggestions for the parameter adjustments) and future systems are also described.

  • Each chapter covers aspects individually for easy reference, including approaches such as: functional blocks, protocol layers, hardware and software, planning, optimization, use cases, challenges, solutions to potential problems
  • Provides very practical detail on the planning and operation of networks to enable readers to apply the content in real-world deployments
  • Bridges the gap between the communications in the academic context and the practical knowledge and skills needed to work in the telecommunications industry
  • Section divisions include: General theory; Fixed telecommunications; Mobile communications; Space communications; Other and special communications; and Planning and management of telecommunication networks
  • Covers new commercial and enhanced systems deployed, such as IPv6 based networks, LTE-Advanced and GALILEO

An essential reference for Technical personnel at telecom operators; equipment and terminal manufacturers; Engineers working for network operators.

Preface xxv

Acknowledgements xxvii

Abbreviations xxix

List of Contributors xlv

1 Introduction 1
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

1.1 General 1

1.2 Short History of Telecommunications 2

1.3 The Telecommunications Scene 5

1.4 The Focus of the Book 15

1.5 Instructions for Reading the Book Contents 16

References 20

2 Standardization and Regulation 23
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Standardization Bodies 23

2.3 Industry Forums 38

2.4 Other Entities 44

2.5 Frequency Regulation 45

2.6 National Regulators 46

2.7 Guideline for Finding and Interpreting Standards 47

References 47

3 Telecommunications Principles 49
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 Terminology and Planning Principles 49

3.3 Evolution 58

3.4 Spectrum Allocations 64

3.5 Physical Aspects 64

References 71

4 Protocols 73
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

4.1 Introduction 73

4.2 OSI 74

4.3 Fixed Networks 82

4.4 Mobile Networks 89

4.5 Data Networks 90

4.6 Error Recovery 93

4.7 LAP Protocol Family 96

4.8 Cross-Layer Protocol Principles 98

References 99

5 Connectivity and Payment 101
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

5.1 Connectivity 101

5.2 Definitions 101

5.3 IP Connectivity 102

5.4 Wired Connectivity 105

5.5 Radio Connectivity in the Near Field 114

5.6 NFC and Secure Payment 115

5.7 Secure Payment 120

5.8 Bluetooth 125

5.9 Hearing Aid Compatibility 129

5.10 Other Connectivity Technologies 131

References 132

6 Fixed Telecommunications Networks 135
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

6.1 Introduction 135

6.2 Network Topologies 135

6.3 Redundancy 138

6.4 Telephone Network 139

6.5 User Devices 140

6.6 Plain Old Public Telephone System (POTS) 145

6.7 Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) 149

6.8 Intelligent Network (IN) 153

6.9 SIP 155

6.10 Telephony Solutions for Companies 159

6.11 Transport 161

6.12 Cloud Computing 161

References 163

7 Data Networks 165
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen, Tero Jalkanen and Ilkka Keisala

7.1 Introduction 165

7.2 IPv4 165

7.3 IPv6 169

7.4 Routing 172

7.5 ATM 174

7.6 Frame Relay 176

7.7 LAN and MAN 177

7.8 Wi-Fi 189

7.9 Inter-Operator Networks 202

References 204

8 Telecommunications Network Services and Applications 207
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

8.1 Introduction 207

8.2 Voice 207

8.3 Messaging 208

8.4 Audio and Video 210

8.5 Health Care 212

8.6 Education 212

8.7 CSTA 213

8.8 Advanced Telecommunications Functionalities 214

8.9 Business Exchange 218

8.10 Public IP Network Develops to NGN 218

8.11 Voice Service Access Points 222

8.12 Mobile Services 224

References 236

9 Transmission Networks 237
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen and Juha Kallio

9.1 Introduction 237

9.2 Physical Transmission Systems 237

9.3 Coding Techniques 238

9.4 PCM 241

9.5 Coding Techniques 243

9.6 PDH 245

9.7 SDH 245

9.8 WDM 246

9.9 Carrier Ethernet Transport 247

9.10 IP Multimedia Subsystem 250

9.11 Case Example: LTE Transport 257

9.12 Cloud Computing and Transport 257

References 259

10 Modulation and Demodulation 261
Patrick Marsch and Jyrki Penttinen

10.1 Introduction 261

10.2 General 261

10.3 Analog Modulation Methods 262

10.4 Digital Modulation and Demodulation 264

References 280

11 3GPP Mobile Communications: GSM 281
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

11.1 Introduction 281

11.2 Development of GSM 281

11.3 Specification of GSM 285

11.4 Architecture of GSM 286

11.5 Functionality of GSM 294

11.6 Numbering of GSM 303

11.7 GSM Data 308

11.8 Dual Half Rate 317

11.9 DFCA 341

11.10 EDGE 349

11.11 DLDC 354

11.12 EDGE2 366

References 367

12 3GPP Mobile Communications: WCDMA and HSPA 371
Patrick Marsch, Michat Maternia, Michal Panek, Ali Yaver, Ryszard Dokuczat and Rybakowski Marcin

12.1 Network Architecture 371

12.2 Physical Layer Aspects 376

12.3 Radio Interface Procedures 387

12.4 WCDMA/HSPA Evolution since Release 5 402

12.5 Planning and Dimensioning of WCDMA/HSPA Networks 410

References 415

13 3GPP Mobile Communications: LTE/SAE and LTE-A 417
Jacek Góra, Krystian Safjan, Jarostaw Lachowski, Agnieszka Szufarska, Stanistaw Strzyÿz,Szymon Stefánski, Damian Kolmas, Jyrki T. J. Penttinen, Francesco D. Calabrese,Guillaume Monghal, Mohammad Anas, Luis Maestro, Juha Kallio and Olli Ramula

13.1 Introduction 417

13.2 Architecture 418

13.3 Elements 419

13.4 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network 422

13.5 Interfaces 428

13.6 Protocol Stacks 430

13.7 Layer 2 Structure 434

13.8 LTE Radio Network 435

13.9 LTE Spectrum 436

13.10 Physical Layer 438

13.11 SC-FDM and SC-FDMA 448

13.12 Frame Structure and Physical Channels 449

13.13 Physical Layer Procedures 453

13.14 User Mobility 455

13.15 Radio Resource Management Procedures 457

13.16 Link Adaptation 458

13.17 ICIC 459

13.18 Reporting 463

13.19 LTE Radio Resource Management 466

13.20 RRM Principles and Algorithms Common to UL and DL 467

13.21 Uplink RRM 477

13.22 Downlink RRM 482

13.23 Intra-LTE Handover 485

13.24 LTE Release 8/9 Features 487

13.25 LTE-Advanced Features (Rel. 10) 496

13.26 LTE Transport and Core Network 504

13.27 Transport Network 506

13.28 Core Network 509

13.29 Charging 510

References 513

14 Wireless LAN and Evolution 515
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

14.1 Introduction 515

14.2 WLAN Standards 515

14.3 IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) 515

14.4 IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) 524

14.5 Evolved IEEE 802.16 (4G) 529

14.6 Comparison of Wireless Technologies 534

References 536

15 Terrestrial Broadcast Networks 537
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

15.1 Introduction 537

15.2 Analog Systems 537

15.3 Digital Radio 539

15.4 Digital Television 540

References 552

16 Satellite Systems: Communications 555
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

16.1 Introduction 555

16.2 Principles of Satellite Systems 556

16.3 Voice and Data Services 569

16.4 Broadcast Satellite Systems 571

16.5 Standardization 574

16.6 Commercial Satellite Systems 577

16.7 Radio Link Budget 595

References 601

17 Satellite Systems: Location Services and Telemetry 603
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

17.1 General 603

17.2 GPS 604

17.3 GALILEO 608

17.4 Positioning Systems: Other Initiatives 614

17.5 Space Research 616

17.6 Weather and Meteorological Satellites 616

17.7 Military Systems 617

References 619

18 Other and Special Networks 621
Pertti Virtanen and Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

18.1 IS-95 621

18.2 CDMA2000 624

18.3 TETRA 625

References 640

19 Security Aspects of Telecommunications: 3GPP Mobile Networks 641
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

19.1 Introduction 641

19.2 Basic Principles of Protection 641

19.3 GSM Security 642

19.4 UMTS Security 647

19.5 LTE Security 649

19.6 LTE/SAE Service Security: Case Example 659

19.7 Authentication and Authorization 663

19.8 Customer Data Safety 665

19.9 Lawful Interception 665

References 668

20 Planning of 2G Networks 669
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

20.1 General Planning Guidelines for Fixed Networks 669

20.2 Capacity Planning 672

20.3 Coverage Planning 675

20.4 Frequency Planning 679

20.5 Parameter Planning 681

20.6 Network Measurements 683

20.7 Effects of Data Services on GSM Planning 684

20.8 Other Planning Considerations 714

20.9 GSM/GPRS Measurement and Simulation Techniques 722

20.10 Simulations 729

References 741

21 Planning of Advanced 3G Networks 743
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

21.1 Introduction 743

21.2 Radio Network Planning Process 743

21.3 Nominal Network Planning 746

21.4 Capacity Planning 749

21.5 Coverage Planning 750

21.6 Self-Optimizing Network 757

21.7 Parameter Planning 759

References 776

22 Planning of Mobile TV Networks 777
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

22.1 Introduction 777

22.2 High-Level Network Dimensioning Process 777

22.3 Detailed Radio Network Design 795

22.4 Radiation Limitations 818

22.5 Cost Prediction and Optimization 819

References 830

23 Planning of Core Networks 835
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen and Jukka Hongisto

23.1 Introduction 835

23.2 General Planning Guidelines for Fixed Networks 835

23.3 Planning of the Networks 836

23.4 Capacity Planning 838

23.5 Network Evolution from 2G/3G PS Core to EPC 840

23.6 Entering Commercial Phase: Support for Multimode LTE/3G/2G Terminals with Pre-Release 8 SGSN 841

23.7 SGSN/MME Evolution 845

23.8 Case Example: Commercial SGSN/MME Offering 846

23.9 Mobile Gateway Evolution 847

23.10 Case Example: Commercial GGSN/S-GW/P-GW Offering 847

23.11 EPC Network Deployment and Topology Considerations 848

23.12 LTE Access Dimensioning 850

Reference 851

24 EMF – Radiation Safety and Health Aspects 853
Jouko Rautio and Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

24.1 Introduction 853

24.2 The EMF Question 856

24.3 The Scientific Principle and Process: The Precautionary Principle 856

24.4 The Expert Organizations and Regulation 858

24.5 Some Topics of the EMF Debate 860

24.6 SAR 864

24.7 The Safety Distance and Installation 866

24.8 Summing Up 869

24.9 High-Power Network Planning 870

References 880

25 Deployment and Transition of Telecommunication Systems 883
Michat Maternia

25.1 Introduction 883

25.2 Why to Deploy Wireless Systems 883

25.3 Transition of Telecommunication Systems 885

25.4 Network Deployments 886

25.5 Spectrum Considerations for Network Transition 900

25.6 Terminals Support for the Network Transition 904

25.7 Evolution of Macro Sites and Deployment of Small Cells 906

25.8 Beyond 4G Systems: 5G 910

25.9 Challenges and Possibilities 911

References 913

26 Wireless Network Measurements 915
Jyrki T. J. Penttinen

26.1 Introduction 915

26.2 Principles of Radio Interface Measurements 915

26.3 GSM/GPRS 915

26.4 LTE 921

26.5 LTE Field Measurements 928

References 934

Index 935