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The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards

The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards

C. Church (Editor), D. Burgess (Editor), C. Doswell (Editor), R. Davies-Jones (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66414-8 March 2013 American Geophysical Union 637 Pages

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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 79.

During the past two decades, remarkable advances have been made in the understanding of the structure and dynamics of tornadoes and tornado storms. This knowledge has led to improvements in prediction capability, procedures for issue and dissemination of warnings, and the practice of hazard mitigation. This progress can be attributed to the development of Doppler radars, wind profilers, lightning ground?]strike location detectors, and automated surface observing systems; to the application of multispectral satellite data; to improvements in numerical simulation of clouds and storms; to the deployment of mobile storm?]intercept teams with means to make quantitative observations; and to improved understanding of how structures fail when subjected to tornadoes.

Christopher Church, Donald Burgess, Charles A. Doswell III, and Robert Davies-Jones xi

Plainfield Tornado of August 28, 1990
T. Theodore Fujita 1

Tornado Vortex Theory and Modeling

Tornado Vortex Theory
W. S. Lewellen 19

Numerical Simulation of Axisymmetric Tornadogeness in Forced Convection
Brian H. Fiedler 41

Numerical Simulation of Tornadolike Vortices in Asymmetric Flow
R. Jeffrey Trapp and Brian H. Fiedler 49

Discussion 55

Modeling and Theory of Supercell Storms

Supercell Thunderstorm Modeling and Theory
Richard Rotunno 57

Numerical Simulation of Tornadogenesis Within a Supercell Thunderstorm
Louis J. Wicker and Robert B. Wilhelmson 75

Tornado Spin-Up Beneath a Convectiv  Cell: Required Basic Structure of the Near-Field
Boundary Layer Winds
Robert L. Walko 89

Environmental Helicity and the Maintenance and Evolution of Low-Level Mesocyclones
Harold E. Brooks, Charles A. Doswe III, and Robert Davies-Jones 97

Mesocyclogenesis From a Theoretical Perspective
Robert Davies-Jones and Harold Brooks 105

Discussion 115

Observations of Tornadic Thunderstorms

Observations and Simulations of Hurricane-Spawned Tornadic Storms
Eugene W. McCad, Jr. 119

Tornadic Thunderstorm Characteristics Dermined With Doppler Radar
Edward A. Brandes 143

Tornadoes an d Tornadic Storms: A Review of Conceptual Models
Charles A. DoswelIII and D onald W. Burgess 161

Lightning in Tornadict Sorms: A Review
Donald R. MacGorman 173

Tornadogensis via Squall line and Supercell Interaction: November 15, 1989, Huntsville,
Alabama, Tornado
Steven J. Goodman and Kevin R. Knupp 183

Tornado Detection and Warning

Tornado Detection and Warning by Radar
Donald W. Burgess, Ralph J. Donaldson, Jr., and Paul R. Desrochers 203

Single-Doppler Radar Study of a Variety of TornadoT ypes
Steven V. Vasiloff 223

Radar Signatures and Severe Weather Forecasting
Paul Joe and Mike Leduc 233

The Use of Volumetric Radar Data to Identify Supercells: A Case Study of June 2, 1990
Ron W. Przybylinski, John T. Snow, Ernest M. Agee, and John T. Curran 241

Doppler Radar Identification of Nonsevere Thunderstorms That Have the Potential of Becoming
Rodger A. Brown 251

An Examination of a Supercell in Mississippi Usinga Tilt Sequence
David A. Imy and Kevin J. Pence 257

Satellite Observations of Tornadic Thunderstorms
James F. W. Purdom 265

Discussion 275

Physical Models and Analogs
Laboratory Models of Tornadoes
Christopher R. Church and John T. Snow 277

Laser Doppler Velocimeter Measurements in Tornadolike Vortices
Donald E. Lund and John T. Snow 297

Vortex Formation From a Helical Inflow Tornado Vortex Simulator
James G. LaDue 307

Discussion 317

Tornado Observations

A Review of Tornado Observations
Howard B. Bluestein and Joseph H. Golden 319

A Comparison of Surface Observations and Visual Tornado Characteristics for the June 15,
1988, Denver Tornado Outbreak
E. J. Szoke and R. Rotunno 353

On the Use of a Portable FM-CW Doppler Radar for Tornado Research
Howard B. Bluestein and Wesley P. Unruh 367

Protection of Important or Critical Facilities

Design for Containment of Hazardous Materials
Robert C. Murray and James R. McDonald 379

State-of-the-Art and Current Research Activities in Extreme Winds Relating to Design and
Evaluation of Nuclear Power Plants
M. K. Ravindra 389

Wind/Tornado Design Criteria Developmetnot Achieve Required Probabilistic Performance Goals
Dorothy S. Ng 399

Discussion 405

Climatology, Hazards, Risk Assessment

Advances in Tornado Climatology, Hazards, and Risk Assessment Since Tornado Symposium II
Thomas P. Grazulis, Joseph T. Schaefera, and Robert F. Abbey, Jr. 409

ComparativDee scriptioonf Tornadoeins France and the United States
Jean Dessens and John T. Snow 427

Tornadoes of China
Xu Zixiu, Wang Pengyun, and Lin Xuefang 435

Seasonal Tornado Climatology for the Southeastern United States
Linda Pickett Garinger and Kevin R. Knupp 445

Oregon Tornadoes: More Fact Than Fiction
George R. Miller 453

The Stability of Climatological Tornado Data
Joseph T. Schaefer, Richard L. Livingstom, Fnrderick  P. Ostby, and Preston W. Leftwich 459

A 110-Year Perspective of Significant Tornadoes
Thomas P. Grazulis 467

Discussion 475

Damage Surveys
Aerial Survey and Photography forTornado and Microburst Damage
T. T. Fujita and B. E. Smith 479

Lessons Learned From Analyzing Tornado Damage
Timothy P. Marshall 495

Survey  of a Violent Tornaido in Far Southwestern Texas: The Bakersfield Valley Storm of June
1, 1990
Gary R. Woodall and George N. Mathews 501

An Observational Study on  the Mobara Tornado
H. Niino, O. Suzuki, T. F ujitani, H. Nirasawa, H Ohnol, Takayabu, N. K. inoshita,
T. Murota, and N. Yamaguchi 511

Damage Mitigation and Occupant Safety

Damage Mitigation and Occupant Safety
James R. McDonald 523

Tornado Fatalities in Ohio, 1950-1989
Thomas W. Schmidlin 529

Calculation of Wind Speeds Required to Damage or Destroy Buildings
Henry Liu 535

Risk Factors for Death or Injury in Tornadoes: An Epidemiologic Approach
Sue Anne Brenner and Eric K. Noji 543

Design for Occupant Protection in Schools
Harold W. Harris, Kishor C. Mehta, and James R. McDonald 545

Discussion 555

Tornado Forecasting

Tornado Forecasting: A Review
Charles A. Doswell IH, Steven J. Weiss, and Robert H. Johns 557

Some Wind and Instability ParametersA ssociated With Strong and Violent Tornadoes, 1, Wind
Shear and Helicity
Jonathan M. Davies and Robert H. Johns 573

Some Wind and Instability Parameters Associated With Strong and Violent
Tornadoes, 2, Variations in the Combinations of Wind and Instability Parameters
Robert H. Johns, Jonathan M. Davies, and Preston W. Leftwich 583

Diurnal Low-Level Wind Oscillation and Storm-Relative Helicity
Robert A. Maddox 591

Tornadoes: A Broadcaster's Perspective
Tom Konvicka 599

The "Short Fuse" Composite: An Operational Analysis Technique for Tornado Forecasting
Jim Johnson 605

The Plainfield, Illinois, Tornado of August 28, 1990: The Evolution of Synoptic and Mesoscale
William Korotky, Ron W. Przybylinski, and John A. Hart 611

Characteristics of East Central Florida Tornado Environments
Bartlett C. Hagemeyer and Gary K. Schmocker 625

Discussion 633