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The Trainer's Handbook, 4th Edition



The Trainer's Handbook, 4th Edition

Karen Lawson

ISBN: 978-1-118-93314-5 December 2015 384 Pages

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A ready-to-use toolkit for delivering high-value training in any scenario

The Trainer's Handbook is a comprehensive manual for designing, developing, and delivering effective and engaging training. Based on the feedback of workshop participants, readers, and instructors, this new third edition has been expanded to provide guidance toward new technologies, leadership training, distance learning, blended learning, and other increasingly common issues, with new case studies for each chapter. A systematic approach to training breaks the book into five parts that separately target analysis, design, development, delivery, and evaluation, giving you a comprehensive reference designed for quick look-up and easy navigation. New inventories, worksheets, job aids, checklists, activities, samples, and templates help you bring new ideas into the classroom, and updated instructor guide help you seamlessly integrate new and established methods and techniques.

Training is increasingly expanding beyond the traditional instructor-led classroom; courses may now be delivered online or offsite, may be asynchronous and self-led, and may be delivered to individuals, small groups, or entire organizations. This book gives you a one-stop reference and toolkit to help you provide more effective training, regardless of class size, structure, subject, or objective.

  • Explore new training styles adapted to different learning styles
  • Design specialized instructional plans for groups, distance learning, and active training
  • Blend creativity, logic and design principles to create more effective visuals
  • Develop strategies for training leaders, training across cultures, and more

Effective training means delivering useful information in a way that's accessible, approachable, understandable, and memorable. The Trainer's Handbook gives you the knowledge and framework you need to provide a high-value experience in any training scenario.

List of Tables, Exhibits, and Figures vii

Acknowledgments xi

Preface xiii


1. Assessing Needs 3

Understanding Needs Assessment 3

Needs-Assessment Process 6

How to Conduct a Needs Assessment 9

Developing an Action Plan 21

Assessing Participants’ Knowledge, Attitudes, Skills 21

Key Points 24

2. Understanding Adult Learners 25

Andragogical versus Pedagogical Model 25

How and Why People Learn 26

Learning Styles 28

Application of Learning Principles 36

Key Points 38

3. Training Styles 39

Trainer Characteristics and Competencies 39

Training Style 41

Learner-Centered versus Information-Centered 64

Key Elements of a Trainer’s Style 68

Key Points 69

4. Understanding Today’s Learner 71

The Changing Training Environment 71

Self-Awareness 72

Diversity Issues 73

Key Points 81

5. Writing Instructional Objectives 83

What Are Learning Objectives? 83

Writing Learning Objectives 85

Key Points 92

6. Writing an Instructional Plan 93

Instructional Plan Overview 93

Time Needed to Develop a Training Program 94

Cost Considerations 95

Major Components of Design 96

Creating a Design Matrix 96

Creating a Detailed Instructional Plan 101

Components of an Instructional Plan 101

Instructional Methods 106

Developing Materials 107

Key Points 115

7. Selecting, Designing, and Developing Active-Training Methods 117

The Case for Active Training 117

Cooperative Learning 118

Creating an Active-Learning Environment 119

Designing Active-Training Activities 122

Common Methods and Materials 124

Experiential Learning Activities 136

Key Points 142

8. Delivering Training 143

Creating a Positive Learning Environment 143

Experiential Learning Cycle 166

Tips for Using Specific Methods 172

Improving Platform Presence 177

Key Points 179

9. Using Visual Aids 181

Retention Rate in Visual Learning 181

Reasons to Use Visual Aids 182

Guidelines for Using Slides 184

Using Flip Charts 186

Using Videos and Video Clips 189

Key Points 191

10. Working with Groups 193

The Trainer as Facilitator 193

Ways to Encourage Participation 194

The Art of Asking Questions 195

Responding to Questions 196

Scaling the Wall of Resistance 200

Problem Situations 205

Key Points 214

11. Using Creativity 215

Creativity with Small Groups 215

Props and Other Theatrical Techniques 218

Using Games 221

Creative Closings 226

Key Points 230

12. Evaluating Training 231

Evaluation Basics 231

Four-Level Model for Training Evaluation 233

Participant Evaluation and Accountability for e-Learning 245

Accountability for Training 247

Significance of the Evaluation Process 250

Key Points 250


13. Training across Cultures 253

Globalization of Businesses and People 253

Culture and Cultural Dimensions 254

Becoming Culturally Intelligent 255

Practical Application 262

Key Points 265

14. Storytelling as a Training Technique 267

The Value of Storytelling 267

Types of Stories 269

Telling Personal Stories 271

Capturing Your Personal Stories 275

How to Tell Your Story 277

Key Points 278

15. Using Technology in Training 279

Workplace Trends 279

Advantages/Benefits of Distance Learning 280

Disadvantages/Drawbacks to Distance Learning 282

Types of Distance Learning 284

Guidelines for Designing Distance Learning 286

Designing and Developing Activities 288

Delivering Content and Activities 294

Key Points 296

16. Training On the Job 297

The Need for Structured On-the-Job Training 297

Selecting the Trainer 299

Developing an Instructional Plan 301

On-the-Job Training Model 304

Evaluating On-the-Job Training 307

Key Points 311

17. Training During Tough Times 313

Prove the Value of Training 313

Methods to Stretch Training Dollars 314

Technology-Based Delivery Methods 322

Just-in-Time Materials 327

Key Points 327

18. The Business of Consulting: Internal and External 329

The Changing Role of the Trainer 329

The Client-Consultant Relationship 330

Developing a Proposal 335

Setting Clear Expectations 336

Selecting an External Consultant 337

After the Project 340

Key Points 341

Appendix A: Answers to Exercises 343

Appendix B: Recommended Resources 347

Appendix C: Criteria for Selecting Packaged Programs 349

References 351

Index 355

About the Author 367