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Thematic Cartography, Volume 1, Thematic Cartography and Transformations

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Thematic Cartography, Volume 1, Thematic Cartography and Transformations

Colette Cauvin, Francisco Escobar, Aziz Serradj

ISBN: 978-1-118-61951-3 March 2013 Wiley-ISTE

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Description

A thematic map is a map that illustrates more than simply geographical relationships or locations, but rather also portrays themes, patterns, or data relating to physical, social, medical, economic, political, or any other aspect of a region or location. Examples include maps that show variations of population density, climate data, wealth, voting intentions, or life expectancy with geographical location.  These tools have become central to the work of scientists, practitioners, and students in nearly every field, from epidemiology to political science, and are familiar to members of the public as a common means of expressing complicated and multivariate information in easily understood graphical formats.

This set of three volumes on Thematic Cartography considers maps as information constructs resulting from a number of successive information transformations and the products of decision stages, integrated into a logical reasoning and the order of those choices. It thereby provides a thorough understanding of the theoretical basis for thematic mapping, as well as the means of applying the various techniques and methodologies in order to create a desired analytical presentation.

This first volume introduces the basics of thematic cartography. The authors present the transformations necessary to the production – using a scientific approach – of any thematic map. Four stages are detailed: from geographic entities to cartographic objects; the [XY] transformation; the [XYZ] cartographic transformations; and the semiotic transformation. Technical aspects giving map-reading keys are also included.

Foreword xi

General Introduction xix

PART I. CARTOGRAPHY: AN EVOLVING SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE 1

Part I. Introduction 3

Chapter 1. A Brief History of Thematic Cartography 5

1.1. From cartography to thematic cartography 5

1.1.1. The Middle Ages in the West: symbolic maps 6

1.1.2. From the Renaissance to the 19th century: resurgence of cartography due to discoveries and innovations 6

1.1.3. The 20th century: widespread acceleration 8

1.2. Thematic cartography from its birth until the 1950s 9

1.2.1. Towards an abstract code and adapted procedures 10

1.2.2. The 20th century: the birth of a scientific discipline 11

1.3. Main trends from 1950 until after 2000 12

1.3.1. Remarkable facts 12

1.3.2. From 1950 to 1975: paradigms and the technological revolution 14

1.3.3. From 1975 to 1995: a diversified evolution 17

1.3.4. A new paradigm for the 21st century: geovisualization (1995-2009) 20

1.3.5. The specific views of W. Bunge and W. Tobler 22

1.4. Conclusion 23

Chapter 2. Cartography: A Discipline of Transformations 25

2.1. The discipline and its output 25

2.1.1. From a map 25

2.1.2. … to cartography 33

2.2. Categories of maps and cartography 40

2.2.1. Maps galore 40

2.2.2. From cartography to cartographies 45

2.3. Functions of maps and of cartography 51

2.3.1. Four essential functions of maps 51

2.3.2. A map as a logical series of transformations 53

2.4. Conclusion 62

Chapter 3. The Map – a Construction Based on Scientific Reasoning 63

3.1. Terms to be defined 63

3.1.1. Approach 63

3.1.2. “Scientific” 64

3.1.3. “Experimental” 64

3.1.4. Experimental scientific approach 65

3.2. From scientific approach to cartographic reasoning 65

3.2.1. Heuristic thematic and cartographic phase 66

3.2.2. The verification phase – exclusively disciplinary logic 72

3.3. The demonstration phase dominated by cartographic logic 73

3.3.1. From real world to a cartographic object 73

3.3.2. At the core of the process: mapmaking (T3 and T4) 76

3.3.3. A completely revolutionized step: the display transformation (T5) 78

3.4. Conclusion 81

Part I. Conclusion 83

PART II. DATA CONSTRUCTION: A TRANSFORMATION DEFINING THE QUALITY OF THE MAP 85

Part II. Introduction 87

Chapter 4. Localized Data: the Specialty of Cartography 91

4.1. Characteristics of spatial data 93

4.1.1. Characteristics related to the topic treated 93

4.1.2. Scale constraints and its implications 97

4.1.3. The choice of a projection system 99

4.1.4. Data characteristics in numerical form 104

4.2. The acquisition of localized data: a domain in revival 110

4.2.1. Indirect data collection 111

4.2.2. Direct data collection 122

4.3. From the cartographic generalization to the change of spatial base 129

4.3.1. A crucial transformation: generalization 129

4.3.2. Modifications in the spatial base 139

4.4. Conclusion 144

Chapter 5. Attributes: the Specificity of Thematic Cartography 147

5.1. The need to harmonize vocabulary 147

5.1.1. From raw data to information 147

5.1.2. Around the attributes 149

5.2. Highly heterogenous sources 149

5.2.1. From the existence of a source to its availability 150

5.2.2. Data that need to be created 151

5.3. Raw data, information and measurements 153

5.3.1. From geographical entities to measurement 153

5.3.2. Attributes: dimension and significance 162

5.3.3. Attributes and characteristics 167

5.4. Conclusion 169

Chapter 6. Locations and Attributes: Quality Criteria 171

6.1. Data quality: digital and visual criteria 172

6.1.1. Characteristics of quality criteria 173

6.1.2. Errors in digital cartography 179

6.2. A condition of quality: metadata and their standards 185

6.2.1. Metadata 185

6.2.2. Objectives of standards 185

6.2.3. The ISO 19115 standard 186

6.3. Spatial Data Infrastructure and Digital Earth concept 190

6.3.1. The definition of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) 190

6.3.2. Components of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) 191

6.3.3. Hierarchy of SDIs 193

6.3.4. A regional initiative – the European SDI and the INSPIRE project 194

6.4. Conclusions 196

Part II. Conclusion 199

PART III. NECESSARY TRANSFORMATIONS IN THEMATIC CARTOGRAPHY 201

Part III. Introduction 203

Chapter 7. A Permanent Phase: The Semiotic Transformation 205

7.1. Communication and sign system 205

7.1.1. Cartographic communication 206

7.1.2. From a system of signs to the “language” of cartography 211

7.2. Signs in cartography and their syntax 219

7.2.1. A specialty of cartography: spatial dimensions 219

7.2.2. Visual variables – minimum graphical units 222

7.2.3. Non-visual semiotic variables 241

7.2.4. Formation rules for signifying units 243

7.3. From recipient to transmitter: perception, reading and rules of construction 251

7.3.1. Recipient and his/her physiological and psychological characteristics 251

7.3.2. From recipient to emitter: reading and using a map 258

7.3.3. Rules of cartographic construction for the transmitter 263

7.3.4. The map and the problems of its validation 273

7.4. Conclusion 278

Chapter 8. Cartographic Transformations: the Representation Modes 279

8.1. Point-based representation modes 284

8.1.1. Point-based representations with nominal data 285

8.1.2. Point-based representations with binary data (distribution maps) 287

8.1.3. Point-based representations with ordinal data 289

8.1.4. Point-based representations with quantitative data 290

8.2. Linear representation modes 301

8.2.1. Variation criteria for linear representations 301

8.2.2. Linear representations associated with linear meaning 304

8.2.3. Linear representations with a real meaning 309

8.2.4. Linear representations with volumetric meaning 315

8.3. Areal representation modes 324

8.3.1. Discrete areal representations 325

8.3.2. Continuous areal representations 347

8.3.3. Areal maps and multiple membership 366

8.4. Conclusion 367

Chapter 9. Cartographic Design 371

9.1. Map elements: a guided inventory 372

9.1.1. A ubiquitous component: lettering 372

9.1.2. Mapping area: a component related to the objective of the map 378

9.1.3. Components which depend on the recipient: title and legend 381

9.1.4. Ubiquitous information associated with the container 382

9.1.5. Additional informative text 384

9.2. A fundamental component: the legend 384

9.2.1. Basic elements 385

9.2.2. General legends 386

9.2.3. Presentations to be adapted 389

9.3. General layout and thematic meaning 394

9.3.1. Organizing factors 394

9.3.2. Governing principles 395

9.3.3. Crucial qualities 396

9.4. Conclusion 396

Part III. Conclusion 397

General Conclusion 399

Bibliography 403

Software Used 451

List of Authors 453

Index 455

Summary of Other Volumes in the Series 465