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Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements, 7th Edition

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Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements, 7th Edition

Richard S. Figliola, Donald E. Beasley

ISBN: 978-1-119-47565-1 May 2019 624 Pages

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Description

Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements merges time-tested pedagogy with current technology to deliver an immersive, accessible resource for both students and practicing engineers. Emphasizing statistics and uncertainty analysis with topical integration throughout, this book establishes a strong foundation in measurement theory while leveraging the e-book format to increase student engagement with interactive problems, electronic data sets, and more. This new Seventh edition has been updated with new practice problems, electronically accessible solutions, and dedicated Instructor Problems that ease course planning and assessment.

Extensive coverage of device selection, test procedures, measurement system performance, and result reporting and analysis sets the field for generalized understanding, while practical discussion of data acquisition hardware, infrared imaging, and other current technologies demonstrate real-world methods and techniques. Designed to align with a variety of undergraduate course structures, this unique text offers a highly flexible pedagogical framework while remaining rigorous enough for use in graduate studies, independent study, or professional reference. 

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Preface V

1 Basic Concepts of measurement methods 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 General Measurement System 2

1.3 Experimental Test Plan 5

1.4 Calibration 14

1.5 Standards 22

1.6 Presenting Data 30

2 Static And Dynamic Characteristics of Signals 35

2.1 Introduction 35

2.2 Input/Output Signal Concepts 35

2.3 Signal Analysis 39

2.4 Signal Amplitude and Frequency 42

2.5 Fourier Transform and the Frequency Spectrum 55

3 Measurement System Behavior 64

3.1 Introduction 64

3.2 General Model for a Measurement System 64

3.3 Special Cases of the General System Model 68

3.4 Transfer Functions 88

3.5 Phase Linearity 90

3.6 Multiple-Function Inputs 91

3.7 Coupled Systems 93

3.8 Summary 95

4 Probability And Statistics 97

4.1 Introduction 97

4.2 Statistical Measurement Theory 98

4.3 Describing the Behavior of a Population 103

4.4 Statistics of Finite-Sized Data Sets 107

4.5 Hypothesis Testing 114

4.6 Chi-Squared Distribution 117

4.7 Regression Analysis 121

4.8 Data Outlier Detection 126

4.9 Number of Measurements Required 127

4.10 Monte Carlo Simulations 129

5 Uncertainty Analysis 133

5.1 Introduction 133

5.2 Measurement Errors 134

5.3 Design-Stage Uncertainty Analysis 136

5.4 Identifying Error Sources 140

5.5 Systematic and Random Errors and Standard Uncertainties 142

5.6 Uncertainty Analysis: Multi-Variable Error Propagation 144

5.7 Advanced-Stage Uncertainty Analysis 151

5.8 Multiple-Measurement Uncertainty Analysis 157

5.9 Correction for Correlated Errors 168

5.10 Nonsymmetrical Systematic Uncertainty Interval 170

6 Analog Electrical Devices And measurements 174

6.1 Introduction 174

6.2 Analog Devices: Current Measurements 174

6.3 Analog Devices: Voltage Measurements 179

6.4 Analog Devices: Resistance Measurements 182

6.5 Loading Errors and Impedance Matching 188

6.6 Analog Signal Conditioning: Amplifiers 193

6.7 Analog Signal Conditioning: Special-Purpose Circuits 196

6.8 Analog Signal Conditioning: Filters 201

6.9 Grounds Shielding and Connecting Wires 211

7 Sampling Digital Devices And Data Acquisition 215

7.1 Introduction 215

7.2 Sampling Concepts 216

7.3 Digital Devices: Bits and Words 223

7.4 Transmitting Digital Numbers: High and Low Signals 226

7.5 Voltage Measurements 227

7.6 Data Acquisition Systems 237

7.7 Data Acquisition System Components 238

7.8 Analog Input–Output Communication 242

7.9 Digital Input–Output Communication 246

7.10 Digital Image Acquisition and Processing 252

8 Temperature measurements 258

8.1 Introduction 258

8.2 Temperature Standards and Definition 259

8.3 Thermometry Based on Thermal Expansion 261

8.4 Electrical Resistance Thermometry 263

8.5 Thermoelectric Temperature Measurement 276

8.6 Radiative Temperature Measurements 297

8.7 Physical Errors in Temperature Measurement 304

9 Pressure And Velocity measurements 315

9.1 Introduction 315

9.2 Pressure Concepts 315

9.3 Pressure Reference Instruments 318

9.4 Pressure Transducers 325

9.5 Pressure Transducer Calibration 331

9.6 Pressure Measurements in Moving Fluids 333

9.7 Modeling Pressure–Fluid Systems 336

9.8 Design and Installation: Transmission Effects 337

9.9 Acoustical Measurements 341

9.10 Fluid Velocity Measuring Systems 345

10 Flow measurements 357

10.1 Introduction 357

10.2 Historical Background 357

10.3 Flow Rate Concepts 358

10.4 Volume Flow Rate through Velocity Determination 359

10.5 Pressure Differential Meters 361

10.6 Insertion Volume Flow Meters 377

10.7 Mass Flow Meters 386

10.8 Flow Meter Calibration and Standards 391

10.9 Estimating Standard Flow Rate 392

11 Strain measurement 395

11.1 Introduction 395

11.2 Stress and Strain 395

11.3 Resistance Strain Gauges 398

11.4 Strain Gauge Electrical Circuits 404

11.5 Practical Considerations for Strain Measurement 407

11.6 Apparent Strain and Temperature Compensation 409

11.7 Optical Strain Measuring Techniques 418

12 Mechatronics: Sensors Actuators And Controls 426

12.1 Introduction 426

12.2 Sensors 426

12.3 Actuators 450

12.4 Controls 457

Problems (Available In E-Text For Students) P-1

A Property Data And Conversion Factors A-1

B Laplace Transform Basics A-8

B.1 Final Value Theorem A-9

B.2 Laplace Transform Pairs A-9

Reference A-9

Glossary G-1

Index I-1

  • New Enhanced E-Text with added resources to make your study time more effective, including the ability to show/hide solutions and answers for selected student practice problems, study guide problems, and how-to notes
  • Data files for practice problems can be accessed electronically through the e-book format
  • Updated end-of-chapter problems include more than 25% new material
  • A dedicated set of Student Problems with available “click to access” solutions
  • Instructor problems—with solutions—visible only to registered instructors, for use in lectures or assessments
  • Allows flexibility in course customization and depth of coverage, with relevance to multiple fields of study
  • Builds an intuitive understanding of critical concepts by emphasizing test system modeling, test plan design, and uncertainty analysis
  • Integrates Matlab and Labview interactive software for in-depth exploration of key concepts and real-world problem solving skills
  • Illustrates current applications of measurement theory and design with examples, case studies, and vignettes
  • Develops a strong foundation of generalized measurement concepts while integrating topical and context-specific material throughout
  • Aids in ABET compliance with an emphasis on real-world measurement and experiment design