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Theory and Practice of Aircraft Performance

Theory and Practice of Aircraft Performance

Ajoy Kumar Kundu, Mark A. Price, David Riordan

ISBN: 978-1-119-07417-5

Sep 2016

704 pages

In Stock

$99.95

Description

Textbook introducing the fundamentals of aircraft performance using industry standards and examples: bridging the gap between academia and industry

  • Provides an extensive and detailed treatment of all segments of mission profile and overall aircraft performance
  • Considers operating costs, safety, environmental and related systems issues
  • Includes worked examples relating to current aircraft (Learjet 45, Tucano Turboprop Trainer, Advanced Jet Trainer and Airbus A320 types of aircraft)
  • Suitable as a textbook for aircraft performance courses

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Preface xix

Series Preface xxi

Road Map of the Book xxiii

Acknowledgements xxvii

Nomenclature xxxi

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Overview 1

1.2 Brief Historical Background 1

1.3 Current Aircraft Design Status 8

1.4 Future Trends 11

1.5 Airworthiness Requirements 14

1.6 Current Aircraft Performance Analyses Levels 16

1.7 Market Survey 17

1.8 Typical Design Process 19

1.9 Classroom Learning Process 23

1.10 Cost Implications 25

1.11 Units and Dimensions 26

1.12 Use of Semi‐empirical Relations and Graphs 26

1.13 How Do Aircraft Fly? 26

1.14 Anatomy of Aircraft 27

1.15 Aircraft Motion and Forces 30

References 36

2 Aerodynamic and Aircraft Design Considerations 37

2.1 Overview 37

2.2 Introduction 37

2.3 Atmosphere 39

2.4 Airflow Behaviour: Laminar and Turbulent 51

2.5 Aerofoil 56

2.6 Generation of Lift 64

2.7 Types of Stall 71

2.8 Comparison of Three NACA Aerofoils 72

2.9 High‐Lift Devices 73

2.10 Transonic Effects – Area Rule 74

2.11 Wing Aerodynamics 76

2.12 Aspect Ratio Correction of 2D‐Aerofoil Characteristics for 3D‐Finite Wing 79

2.13 Wing Definitions 81

2.14 Mean Aerodynamic Chord 84

2.15 Compressibility Effect: Wing Sweep 86

2.16 Wing‐Stall Pattern and Wing Twist 87

2.17 Influence of Wing Area and Span on Aerodynamics 88

2.18 Empennage 92

2.19 Fuselage 98

2.20 Nacelle and Intake 100

2.21 Speed Brakes and Dive Brakes 106

References 106

3 Air Data Measuring Instruments, Systems and Parameters 109

3.1 Overview 109

3.2 Introduction 109

3.3 Aircraft Speed 110

3.4 Air Data Instruments 122

3.5 Aircraft Flight‐Deck (Cockpit) Layout 128

3.6 Aircraft Mass (Weights) and Centre of Gravity 133

3.7 Noise Emissions 141

3.8 Engine‐Exhaust Emissions 145

3.9 Aircraft Systems 146

3.10 Low Observable (LO) Aircraft Configuration 150

References 152

4 Equations of Motion for a Flat Stationary Earth 153

4.1 Overview 153

4.2 Introduction 154

4.3 Definitions of Frames of Reference (Flat Stationary E arth) and Nomenclature Used 154

4.4 Eulerian Angles 158

4.5 Simplified Equations of Motion for a Flat Stationary Earth 161

Reference 167

5 Aircraft Load 169

5.1 Overview 169

5.2 Introduction 169

5.3 Flight Manoeuvres 171

5.4 Aircraft Loads 171

5.5 Theory and Definitions 172

5.6 Limits – Loads and Speeds 173

5.7 V‐n Diagram 174

5.8 Gust Envelope 179

Reference 183

6 Stability Considerations Affecting Aircraft Performance 185

6.1 Overview 185

6.2 Introduction 185

6.3 Static and Dynamic Stability 186

6.4 Theory 192

6.5 Current Statistical Trends for Horizontal and Vertical Tail Coefficients 197

6.6 Inherent Aircraft Motions as Characteristics of Design 198

6.7 Spinning 202

6.8 Summary of Design Considerations for Stability 203

References 207

7 Aircraft Power Plant and Integration 209

7.1 Overview 209

7.2 Background 209

7.3 Definitions 214

7.4 Air‐Breathing Aircraft Engine Types 215

7.5 Simplified Representation of Gas Turbine (Brayton/Joule) Cycle 219

7.6 Formulation/Theory – Isentropic Case 221

7.7 Engine Integration to Aircraft – Installation Effects 226

7.8 Intake/Nozzle Design 231

7.9 Exhaust Nozzle and Thrust Reverser 233

7.10 Propeller 234

References 246

8 Aircraft Power Plant Performance 247

8.1 Overview 247

8.2 Introduction 248

8.3 Uninstalled Turbofan Engine Performance Data – Civil Aircraft 250

8.4 Uninstalled Turbofan Engine Performance Data – Military Aircraft 254

8.5 Uninstalled Turboprop Engine Performance Data 255

8.6 Installed Engine Performance Data of Matched Engines to Coursework Aircraft 257

8.7 Installed Turboprop Performance Data 261

8.8 Piston Engine 264

8.9 Engine Performance Grid 267

8.10 Some Turbofan Data 272

Reference 273

9 Aircraft Drag 275

9.1 Overview 275

9.2 Introduction 275

9.3 Parasite Drag Definition 277

9.4 Aircraft Drag Breakdown (Subsonic) 278

9.5 Aircraft Drag Formulation 279

9.6 Aircraft Drag Estimation Methodology 281

9.7 Minimum Parasite Drag Estimation Methodology 281

9.8 Semi‐Empirical Relations to Estimate Aircraft Component Parasite Drag 284

9.9 Notes on Excrescence Drag Resulting from Surface Imperfections 295

9.10 Minimum Parasite Drag 296

9.11 ΔCDp Estimation 296

9.12 Subsonic Wave Drag 296

9.13 Total Aircraft Drag 298

9.14 Low‐Speed Aircraft Drag at Takeoff and Landing 298

9.15 Propeller‐Driven Aircraft Drag 304

9.16 Military Aircraft Drag 304

9.17 Supersonic Drag 305

9.18 Coursework Example – Civil Bizjet Aircraft 306

9.19 Classroom Example – Subsonic Military Aircraft (Advanced Jet Trainer) 315

9.20 Classroom Example – Turboprop Trainer 319

9.21 Classroom Example – Supersonic Military Aircraft 325

9.22 Drag Comparison 332

9.23 Some Concluding Remarks and Reference Figures 334

References 338

10 Fundamentals of Mission Profile, Drag Polar and Aeroplane Grid 339

10.1 Overview 339

10.2 Introduction 340

10.3 Civil Aircraft Mission (Payload–Range) 342

10.4 Military Aircraft Mission 345

10.5 Aircraft Flight Envelope 349

10.6 Understanding Drag Polar 351

10.7 Properties of Parabolic Drag Polar 354

10.8 Classwork Examples of Parabolic Drag Polar 363

10.9 Bizjet Actual Drag Polar 366

10.10 Aircraft and Engine Grid 372

References 378

11 Takeoff and Landing 379

11.1 Overview 379

11.2 Introduction 380

11.3 Airfield Definitions 380

11.4 Generalized Takeoff Equations of Motion 384

11.5 Friction – Wheel Rolling and Braking Friction Coefficients 389

11.6 Civil Transport Aircraft Takeoff 391

11.7 Worked Example – Bizjet 396

11.8 Takeoff Presentation 404

11.9 Military Aircraft Takeoff 405

11.10 Checking Takeoff Field Length (AJT) 406

11.11 Civil Transport Aircraft Landing 409

11.12 Landing Presentation 417

11.13 Approach Climb and Landing Climb 418

11.14 Fuel Jettisoning 418

References 418

12 Climb and Descent Performance 419

12.1 Overview 419

12.2 Introduction 420

12.3 Climb Performance 422

12.4 Other Ways to Climb (Point Performance) – Civil Aircraft 428

12.5 Classwork Example – Climb Performance (Bizjet) 435

12.6 Hodograph Plot 440

12.7 Worked Example – Bizjet 443

12.8 Integrated Climb Performance – Computational Methodology 444

12.9 Specific Excess Power (SEP) – High‐Energy Climb 447

12.10 Descent Performance 454

12.11 Worked Example – Descent Performance (Bizjet) 459

References 462

13 Cruise Performance and Endurance 463

13.1 Overview 463

13.2 Introduction 464

13.3 Equations of Motion for the Cruise Segment 466

13.4 Cruise Equations 466

13.5 Specific Range 470

13.6 Worked Example (Bizjet) 471

13.7 Endurance Equations 478

13.8 Options for Cruise Segment (Turbofan Only) 481

13.9 Initial Maximum Cruise Speed (Bizjet) 487

13.10 Worked Example of AJT – Military Aircraft 488

References 489

14 Aircraft Mission Profile 491

14.1 Overview 491

14.2 Introduction 492

14.3 Payload‐Range Capability 493

14.4 The Bizjet Payload‐Range Capability 495

14.5 Endurance (Bizjet) 502

14.6 Effect of Wind on Aircraft Mission Performance 502

14.7 Engine Inoperative Situation at Climb and Cruise – Drift‐Down Procedure 503

14.8 Military Missions 506

14.9 Flight Planning by the Operators 507

References 508

15 Manoeuvre Performance 509

15.1 Overview 509

15.2 Introduction 509

15.3 Aircraft Turn 510

15.4 Classwork Example – AJT 520

15.5 Aerobatics Manoeuvre 522

15.6 Combat Manoeuvre 528

15.7 Discussion on Turn 530

References 531

16 Aircraft Sizing and Engine Matching 533

16.1 Overview 533

16.2 Introduction 534

16.3 Theory 535

16.4 Coursework Exercises: Civil Aircraft Design (Bizjet) 541

16.5 Sizing Analysis: Civil Aircraft (Bizjet) 543

16.6 Classroom Exercise – Military Aircraft (AJT) 546

16.7 Sizing Analysis – Military Aircraft 551

16.8 Aircraft Sizing Studies and Sensitivity Analyses 553

16.9 Discussion 554

References 558

17 Operating Costs 559

17.1 Overview 559

17.2 Introduction 560

17.3 Aircraft Cost and Operational Cost 561

17.4 Aircraft Direct Operating Cost (DOC) 567

17.5 Aircraft Performance Management (APM) 574

References 577

18 Miscellaneous Considerations 579

18.1 Overview 579

18.2 Introduction 579

18.3 History of the FAA 580

18.4 Flight Test 583

18.5 Contribution of the Ground Effect on Takeoff 585

18.6 Flying in Adverse Environments 586

18.7 Bird Strikes 590

18.8 Military Aircraft Flying Hazards and Survivability 591

18.9 Relevant Civil Aircraft Statistics 591

18.10 Extended Twin‐Engine Operation (ETOP) 597

18.11 Flight and Human Physiology 598

References 599

Appendices

Appendix A Conversions 601

Appendix B International Standard Atmosphere Table 605

Appendix C Fundamental Equations 609

Appendix D Airbus 320 Class Case Study 615

Appendix E Problem Sets 627

Appendix F Aerofoil Data 647

Index 655