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Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells



Thermal Design: Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells

H. S. Lee

ISBN: 978-0-470-95177-4 February 2011 648 Pages


The proposed is written as a senior undergraduate or the first-year graduate textbook,covering modern thermal devices such as heat sinks, thermoelectric generators and coolers, heat pipes, and heat exchangers as design components in larger systems. These devices are becoming increasingly important and fundamental in thermal design across such diverse areas as microelectronic cooling, green or thermal energy conversion, and thermal control and management in space, etc. However, there is no textbook available covering this range of topics. The proposed book may be used as a capstone design course after the fundamental courses such as thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. The underlying concepts in this book cover the, 1) understanding of the physical mechanisms of the thermal devices with the essential formulas and detailed derivations, and 2) designing the thermal devices in conjunction with mathematical modeling, graphical optimization, and occasionally computational-fluid-dynamic (CFD) simulation.  Important design examples are developed using the commercial software, MathCAD, which allows the students to easily reach the graphical solutions even with highly detailed processes. In other words, the design concept is embodied through the example problems. The graphical presentation generally provides designers or students with the rich and flexible solutions toward achieving the optimal design.  A solutions manual will be provided.

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Chapter 1 Introduction.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Human and Energy.

1.3 Thermodynamics.

1.4 Heat Transfer.


Chapter 2 Heat Sinks.

2.1 Longitudinal Fin of Rectangular Profile.

2.2 Heat Transfer from Fin.

2.3 Fin Effectiveness.

2.4 Fin Efficiency.

2.5 Corrected Profile Length.

2.6 Optimizations.

2.7 Multiple Fin Array I.

2.8 Multiple Fin Array II.

2.9 Thermal Resistance and Overall Efficiency.

2.10 Fin Design with Thermal Radiation.




Chapter 3 Thermoelectrics.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Seebeck Effect.

3.3 Peltier Effect.

3.4 Figure of Merit.

3.5 Thermoelectric Generator (TEG).

3.6 Thermoelectric Coolers (TEC).

3.7 Applications.

3.8 Design Example.



Chapter 4 Heat Pipes.

4.1 Operation of Heat Pipe.

4.2 Surface Tension.

4.3 Heat Transfer Limitations.

4.4 Heat Pipe Thermal Resistance.

4.5 Variable Conductance Heat Pipes (VCHP).

4.6 Loop Heat Pipes.

4.7 Micro Heat Pipes.

4.8 Working Fluid.

4.9 Wick Structures.

4.10 Design Example.



Design Problem.

Chapter 5 Compact Heat Exchangers.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Fundamentals of Heat Exchangers.

5.3 Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers.

5.4 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers.

5.5 Plate Heat Exchangers (PHE).

5.6 Pressure Drops in Compact Heat Exchangers.

5.7 Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers.

5.8 Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers.

5.9 Louver-Fin-Type Flat-tube Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers.



Double Pipe Heat Exchanger.

Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger.

Plate Heat Exchanger.

Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger.

Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger.

Louver-Fin-Type Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger.

Chapter 6 Solar Cells.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Quantum Mechanics.

6.3 Density of States.

6.4 Equilibrium Intrinsic Carrier Concentration.

6.5 Extrinsic Semiconductors in Thermal Equilibrium.

6.6 Generation and Recombination.

6.7 Recombination.

6.8 Carrier Transport.

6.9 Minority Carrier Transport.

6.10 Characteristics of Solar Cells.

6.11 Additional Topics.

6.12 Modeling.

6.13 Design of a Solar Cell.




Quantum Mechanics.

Density of State.

Equilibrium Intrinsic Carrier Concentration.

Extrinsic Semiconductor in Thermal Equilibrium.

Generation and Recombination.


Carrier Transport.

Minority Carrier Lifetime.

Characteristic of Solar Cell.


Solar Cell Design.

Appendix A Thermophysical Properties.

Appendix B Thermoelectrics.

Appendix C Pipe Dimensions.

Appendix D Curve Fitting of Working Fluids.

Appendix E Tutorial I for 2-D.

Appendix F Tutorial II for 3-D.

Appendix G Computational Work of Heat Pipe.

Appendix H Computational Work of Heat Sink.

Appendix I Tutorial for MathCAD.