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Thermodynamics of Pharmaceutical Systems: An Introduction for Students of Pharmacy

Thermodynamics of Pharmaceutical Systems: An Introduction for Students of Pharmacy

Kenneth A. Connors

ISBN: 978-0-471-46139-5

Apr 2003

360 pages

Select type: E-Book



Studies of thermodynamics often fail to demonstrate how the mathematical intricacies of the subject relate to practical laboratory applications. Thermodynamics of Pharmaceutical Systems makes these connections clear, emphasizing specific applications to pharmaceutical systems in a study created specifically for contemporary curriculums at colleges of pharmacy.

Students investigating drug discovery, drug delivery, and drug action will benefit from Kenneth Connors’s authoritative treatment of the fundamentals of thermodynamics as well as his attention to drug molecules and experimental considerations. An extensive appendix that reviews the mathematics needed to master the pharmacy curriculum proves an invaluable reference. Connors divides his one-of-a-kind text into three sections: Basic Thermodynamics, Thermodynamics of Physical Processes, and Thermodynamics of Chemical Processes; chapters include:

  • Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics
  • The Entropy Concept
  • Phase Transformations
  • Solubility
  • Acid-Base Equilibria
  • Noncovalent Binding Equilibria

Thermodynamics need not be a mystery nor be confined to the realm of mathematical theory. Thermodynamics of Pharmaceutical Systems introduces students of pharmacy to the profound thermodynamic applications in the laboratory while also serving as a handy resource for practicing researchers.



1. Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics.

1.1. Fundamental Concepts.

1.2. The First Law of Thermodynamics.

1.3. The Enthalpy.

2. The Entropy Concept.

2.1. The Entropy Defined.

2.2. The Second Law of Thermodynamics.

2.3. Applications of the Entropy Concept.

3. The Free Energy.

3.1. Properties of the Free Energy.

3.2. The Chemical Potential.

4. Equilibrium.

4.1. Conditions for Equilibrium.

4.2. Physical Processes.

4.3. Chemical Equilibrium.


5. Introduction to Physical Processes.

5.1. Scope.

5.2. Concentration Scales.

5.3. Standard States.

6. Phase Transformations.

6.1. Pure Substances.

6.2. Multicomponent Systems.

7. Solutions of Nonelectrolytes.

7.1. Ideal Solutions.

7.2. Nonideal Solutions.

7.3. Partitioning between Liquid Phases.

8. Solutions of Electrolytes.

8.1. Coulombic Interaction and Ionic Dissociation.

8.2. Mean Ionic Activity and Activity Coefficient.

8.3. The Debye-Hu?ckel Theory.

9. Colligative Properties.

9.1. Boiling Point Elevation.

9.2. Freezing Point Depression.

9.3. Osmotic Pressure.

9.4. Isotonicity Calculations.

10. Solubility.

10.1. Solubility as an Equilibrium Constant.

10.2. The Ideal Solubility.

10.3. Temperature Dependence of the Solubility.

10.4. Solubility of Slightly Soluble Salts.

10.5. Solubilities of Nonelectrolytes: Further Issues.

11. Surfaces and Interfaces.

11.1. Thermodynamic Properties.

11.2. Adsorption.


12. Acid-Base Equilibria.

12.1. Acid-Base Theory.

12.2. pH Dependence of Acid-Base Equilibria.

12.3. Calculation of Solution pH.

12.4. Acid-Base Titrations.

12.5. Aqueous Solubility of Weak Acids and Bases.

12.6. Nonaqueous Acid-Base Behavior.

12.7. Acid-Base Structure and Strength.

13. Electrical Work.

13.1. Introduction.

13.2. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions.

13.3. Electrochemical Cells.

13.4. pH Measurement.

13.5. Ion-Selective Membrane Electrodes.

14. Noncovalent Binding Equilibria.

14.1. Introduction.

14.2. The Noncovalent Interactions.

14.3. Binding Models.

14.4. Measurement of Binding Constants.


A. Physical Constants.

B. Review of Mathematics.

B.1. Introduction.

B.2. Logarithms and Exponents.

B.3. Algebraic and Graphical Analysis.

B.4. Dealing with Change.

B.5. Statistical Treatment of Data.

B.6. Dimensions and Units.



""...eminently suitable for its target audience...the book will also be of use to anyone in the pharmaceutical field who has forgotten his or her thermo and needs a refresher course..."" (Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 3)

""...the book for those who are just entering the world of thermodynamics as well as for those...without active participation...this book should be the one to read first before any other books...graduate students...and those scientists in pharmaceutical industry will find the book...invaluable in their research..."" (Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 20, No. 9, September 2003)