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Tissue Engineering: Essentials for Daily Laboratory Work

Tissue Engineering: Essentials for Daily Laboratory Work

Will W. Minuth, Raimund Strehl, Karl Schumacher

ISBN: 978-3-527-60478-4

Aug 2005

324 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Comprehensive in its scope and illustrated in detail, this practical book provides a fundamental insight into the complex world of tissue development and artificial cell culture using tissue engineering.
The introductory chapters cover basic cell biology and cellular development as well as cell culture, with a main emphasis on ways of differentiating tissue and the critical evaluation of the properties of maturing tissue constructs. The authors also focus on the use of stem cells from the most varied sources in tissue engineering.
The whole is rounded off by an exceptionally wide-ranging glossary containing some 1,000 key words from the fields of cell biology, cell culture development and tissue engineering.

Preface V

1 Developmental processes 1

2 Cells and Tissue 4

2.1 The Cell 4

2.1.1 The Cell as a Functional Unit 4

2.1.2 Plasma Membrane 5

2.1.3 Nucleus 6

2.1.4 Mitochondria 6

2.1.5 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) 6

2.1.6 Golgi Apparatus 7

2.1.7 Endosomes, Lysosomes and Peroxisomes 7

2.1.8 Cytoskeleton 8

2.1.9 ECM 8

2.1.10 Cell Cycle 9

2.2 Tissue Types 10

2.2.1 Epithelia 10

2.2.1.1 Building Plans of Epithelia 11

2.2.1.2 Glands 14

2.2.1.3 Epithelia in Sensory Perception 16

2.2.2 Connective Tissue 17

2.2.2.1 Variety 18

2.2.2.2 Fat Tissue as Storage 20

2.2.2.3 Bone and Cartilage as Support Tissue 21

2.2.3 Muscle Tissue 26

2.2.3.1 Cell Movement 26

2.2.3.2 Rhythmic Contraction 28

2.2.3.3 Unconscious Contraction 29

2.2.4 Nervous System Tissue 31

2.2.4.1 Information Mediation 31

2.2.4.2 Networks and Connections 33

2.3 Relevance of the ECM 35

2.3.1 Components of the ECM 35

2.3.1.1 Functions of the ECM 35

2.3.1.2 Synthesis of the Collagens 37

2.3.1.3 Fibronectin 38

2.3.1.4 Laminin 39

2.3.1.5 Reticular and Elastic Fibers 39

2.3.1.6 Collagens of the Basement Membrane 39

2.3.1.7 FACIT Collagens 40

2.3.1.8 Proteoglycans 40

2.3.2 Interactions between the Cell and the ECM 41

2.3.2.1 Adhesion and the ECM 41

2.3.2.2 Proliferation and the ECM 41

2.3.2.3 Differentiation and the ECM 42

2.3.2.4 Apoptosis and the ECM 43

2.3.3 Signal Transduction 43

2.3.3.1 Modulation of the Cell–Matrix Interaction 43

2.3.3.2 The ECM and Cell Binding 44

2.3.3.3 Signals to the Inner Cell 47

2.3.3.4 The ECM and Long-term Contact 48

2.3.4 Matricellular Proteins 51

2.3.4.1 Thrombospondin 52

2.3.4.2 Tenascin C 52

2.3.4.3 Osteopontin 52

2.3.4.4 SPARC 53

2.4 Emergence of Tissue 53

2.4.1 Germ Layers and Ground Tissue 53

2.4.1.1 Derivatives of the Ectoderm 55

2.4.1.2 Derivatives of the Mesoderm 56

2.4.1.3 Derivatives of the Entoderm 58

2.4.2 Individual Cells, Social Interactions and Functional Tissue Development 58

2.4.2.1 Differentiation from Individual Cells 59

2.4.2.2 Functional Exceptions 60

2.4.2.3 Individual Cells and Social Interactions 60

2.4.2.4 Formation of tissue 61

2.4.2.5 Individual Cell Cycles 66

2.4.2.6 Coordinated Growth 67

2.4.2.7 Competence 67

2.4.2.8 Morphogenic Factors 68

2.4.2.9 Apoptosis 69

2.4.2.10 Necrosis versus Apoptosis 71

2.4.2.11 Terminal Differentiation 71

2.4.2.12 Adaptation 72

2.4.2.13 Transdifferentiation 73

2.4.2.14 Multifactorial Differentiation 73

2.5 Regeneration 74

2.5.1 Events Immediately after an Injury 74

2.5.2 Wound Closure 75

2.5.3 Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis) 75

2.5.4 Cooperative Renewal 76

3 Classical Culture Methods 78

3.1 History 78

3.2 First Cultures 79

3.2.1 Culture Containers 80

3.2.1.1 Individual Culture Containers 80

3.2.1.2 Dimensions of the Container 81

3.2.1.3 Coating the Culture Dish 81

3.2.1.4 Filter Inserts 82

3.2.2 Culture Media 82

3.2.2.1 Ingredients 84

3.2.2.2 Adjustment of Serum Supplements 86

3.2.2.3 Serum Collection 87

3.2.2.4 Serum-free Culture Media 88

3.2.2.5 pH of the Medium 90

3.2.2.6 Antibiotics 90

3.2.2.7 Other Additives 91

3.2.3 Growth Factors 92

3.2.3.1 Overview of Different Growth Factors 92

3.2.3.2 Effect of Growth Factors 93

3.2.4 Cell Culture Techniques 94

3.2.4.1 Hybridomas for the Production of Monoclonal Antibodies 95

3.2.4.2 Immortalized Cell Lines as Biomedical Models 96

3.2.4.3 Epithelial Cells in Functional Transfilter Experiments 99

3.2.4.4 Cultivation of Cardiomyocytes 101

3.2.4.5 Cryopreservation 103

3.2.4.6 Problems with the Culture 104

3.2.4.7 Work Expended with Cell Culture Work 105

3.3 Tissue Culture 107

3.3.1 Migration and New Formation 108

3.3.2 Dedifferentiation 110

3.4 Organ Culture 112

4 Tissue Engineering 113

4.1 Cell Therapies 114

4.1.1 Immune Deficiency 115

4.1.2 Defects in Articular Cartilage 115

4.1.3 Large-scale Burns 116

4.1.4 Muscular Dystrophies 117

4.1.5 Myocardial Infarction 118

4.1.6 Diabetes Mellitus 119

4.1.7 Parkinsons Disease 119

4.2 Tissue Constructs 120

4.2.1 Defects in Structural Connective Tissue 121

4.2.2 Bones and Fractures 121

4.2.3 Reconstructive Measures 122

4.2.4 Damage to the Cornea 122

4.2.5 Tumors of the Digestive System 123

4.2.6 Sick Blood Vessels 124

4.2.7 Heart Valve Defects 125

4.2.8 Neural Damage 125

4.3 Organ Modules 126

4.3.1 Liver Failure 126

4.3.2 Chronic Renal Failure 128

4.4 Cosmetic Measures 129

5 Concepts of Tissue Creation 130

5.1 Sources 131

5.2 Stem Cells 132

5.2.1 Embryonic Stem Cells 133

5.2.2 Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) 134

5.2.3 Adult Stem Cells 134

5.2.4 Markers for the Detection of Stem cells 136

5.2.5 Availability of Stem Cells 137

5.2.6 Difficulties in the Artificial Generation of Heart Muscle Tissue 139

5.2.7 Cell Divisions in Niches 139

5.2.8 Plasticity 141

5.2.9 Diversity of Development 142

5.2.10 Teratocarcinoma 143

5.2.11 Responsible Use of Stem Cells 143

5.2.12 Legal Issues 145

5.2.13 Therapeutic Cloning 146

5.2.14 Use of Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering 147

5.2.15 Possible Risks with the Use of Stem Cells 149

5.2.16 Industrial Use 150

5.3 Cells from Tissues 151

5.3.1 Multiplication of Cells Isolated from Tissue 153

5.3.2 Mode of Proliferation 153

5.3.3 Age of the Cells 155

5.3.4 Mitosis and Postmitosis 155

5.4 Matrices 158

5.4.1 Polymers 159

5.4.2 Biodegradable Scaffolds 162

5.4.3 Biological Scaffolds 163

X Contents

5.5 Culture Methods for Tissue Engineering 164

5.5.1 Petri dish 165

5.5.2 Spinner Bottles 166

5.5.3 Rotating Bioreactor 167

5.5.4 Hollow Fiber Module 168

5.5.5 Perfusion 169

5.6 Perfusion Culture 171

5.6.1 Tissue Carriers 172

5.6.2 Selection of a Suitable Matrix 174

5.6.3 Evidence of Cells 175

5.6.4 Perfusion Containers 176

5.6.5 Transport of Culture Media 178

5.6.6 Culture Temperature 179

5.6.7 Oxygen Supply 179

5.6.8 Constancy of pH 180

5.6.9 Starting the Perfusion Culture 183

5.6.10 Gradient Container 184

5.6.11 Gas Bubbles 186

5.6.12 Barrier Continuity 188

6 Maturation of Tissue Constructs 191

6.1 Primary and Secondary Contacts 192

6.1.1 Adhesion 192

6.1.2 Adherence 196

6.1.3 Growth: ERK and MAP Kinases 197

6.2 Building Structures 199

6.3 Terminal Differentiation 200

6.4 Impact of the Culture Environment on the Development of Tissue 201

6.4.1 Atypical Development 201

6.4.2 Humoral Stimuli 203

6.4.3 Biophysical Factors 206

6.4.4 Darling Culture Medium 207

6.4.5 NaCl and Plasticity 208

6.4.6 Natural Interstices 209

6.5 Step by Step 212

6.6 Tissue Functions after Implantation 214

6.7 The Three Steps of Tissue Development 215

7 Development of the Perfusion System Tissue Factory 217

7.1 Requirements of the Culture System 218

7.2 Artificial Interstitium 219

7.3 Smart Matrices 220

7.4 Optimal Housing for the Perfusion System 220

7.5 Supply of the Maturing Tissue with Medium 221

7.6 Synopsis 224

8 Ensuring Tissue Quality 225

8.1 Norms and Cell Biology 225

8.2 Evaluating Complexity 226

8.3 Expression Behavior 228

8.4 Suitability of a Scaffold 231

8.5 Hidden Heterogeneity 234

8.6 Investigating Cellular Ultrastructures 236

8.7 Functional Transfer 238

8.7.1 ECM and Anchoring 238

8.7.2 Development of Cell–Cell Contacts 239

8.7.3 Cytoskeleton 241

8.7.4 Plasma Membrane Proteins 242

8.7.5 Receptors and Signals 244

8.7.6 Cell Surface 245

8.7.7 Constitutive and Facultative Properties 245

8.7.8 Detection of Tissue Functions 247

8.8 Quality Assurance 250

8.8.1 Appearance of the Construct 251

8.8.2 Analytical Microscopy 252

8.8.3 Detection of Tissue Structures 255

8.8.4 Definitive Recognition of Maturation 257

8.8.5 Transitory Expression 257

8.8.6 Making New Markers Available 258

8.9 Implant–Host Interaction 260

9 Perspectives 263

10 Ethical Aspects 265

Glossary 267

Companies 295

Literature 303

Subject Index 307

""This book is fun to read because it covers a lot of ground quickly ... an excellent resource for students who are interested in learning the 'big picture.'""
Doody's Health Services

""... well written, comprehensive in its scope, and illustrated in detail, providing a broad insight into the world of tissue engineering.""
Annals of Biomedical Engineering