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Transduction Channels in Sensory Cells

Transduction Channels in Sensory Cells

Stephan Frings (Editor), Jonathan Bradley (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-60497-5

Mar 2006

321 pages

Select type: E-Book



This is the first book to provide a molecular level explanation of how the senses work, linking molecular biology with sensory physiology to deduce the molecular mechanism of a key step in sensory signal generation.
The editors have assembled expert authors from all fields of sensory physiology for an authoritative overview of the mechanisms of sensory signal transduction in both animals and plants. They systematically cover phototransduction, chemosensory transduction, mechanotransduction, temperature and pain perception, as well as specialized receptors for electrical and magnetic signals.
Required reading for biologists, physiologists and medical researchers with an interest in sensory physiology.

List of Contributers.

1 The Molecular Basis of Touch Sensation as Modeled in Caenorhabditis elegans (Laura Bianchi and Monica Driscoll).


1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Features of the C. elegans Model System.

1.3 Mechanosensation Is a Major Mechanism by Which C. elegans Senses Its Environment.

1.4 Gentle Body Touch.

1.5 The C. elegans Degenerin Family: A Global Role of Degenerin Channels in Mechanotransduction?

1.6 Concluding Remarks.



2 Transduction Channels in Hair Cells (Robert Fettiplace).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Gating Mechanism: Channel Kinetics.

2.3 Ionic Selectivity.

2.4 MET Channel Adaptation.

2.5 Single-channel Conductance.

2.6 The MET Channel as a Member of the TRP Family.

2.7 Conclusions.



3 Acid-sensing Ion Channels (Kenneth A. Cushman and Edwin W. McCleskey).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 ASICs and the DEG/ENaC Superfamily.

3.3 Amino Acid Structure.

3.4 Assembly Into Channels.

3.5 Pharmacology.

3.6 Gating.

3.7 Proposed Sensory Functions.

3.8 CNS ASICs.

3.9 Stroke.

3.10 Other pH-activated Channels.


4 Chemosensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans (Noelle Letoile).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 The Chemosensory Organs.

4.3 Behavioral Assays.

4.4 How Is The Response to Each Stimulus Generated?

4.5 Structure of the TAX, Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channels of the Worm.

4.6 Channel Regulation.


5 Vertebrate Olfactory Signal Transduction and the Interplay of Excitatory Anionic and Cationic Currents (Johannes Reisert and Jonathan Bradley).


5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Recording Odor-induced Electrical Activity.

5.3 Odorant Responses of Single Isolated Olfactory Receptor Neurons.

5.4 Components of the Transduction Pathway.

5.5 Cloning of G Proteins Expressed in the OE.

5.6 Odorant Receptors.

5.7 Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channel in OE.

5.8 Cloning of a CNG Channel Expressed in the OE.

5.9 Negative Feedback by Ca<sup>2+</sup> on the CNG Channel.

5.10 The Olfactory Ca<sup>2+</sup<-activated Cl<sup>–</sup> Channel.

5.11 Activation of the Cl<sup>–</sup> Conductance.

5.12 Single Channel Properties and Channel Densities.

5.13 Regulation of Cl<sup>–</sup> Channel Activity.

5.14 Amplification of the CNG Current and Generation of the Cl<sup>–</sup> Current.

5.15 Open Questions.


6 Transduction Channels in the Vomeronasal Organ (Emily R. Liman and Frank Zufall).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Anatomy of the Vomeronasal System.

6.3 Sensory Responses Involve Generation of Action Potentials and Ca<sup>2+</sup> Entry.

6.4 Two Families of G-protein-coupled Receptors Mediate VNO Transduction.

6.5 Signaling Downstream of G Proteins May Involve a PLC.

6.6 Second Messengers for VNO Transduction: Functional Studies.

6.7 Identification of the TRPC2 Ion Channel as a Candidate Transduction Channel for VNO Sensory Signaling.

6.8 TRPC2 Is Essential for Pheromone Transduction.

6.9 Mechanism of TRPC2 Activation.

6.10 TRPC2 Knockout Mice: Behavioral Defects.

6.11 Loss of VNO Signaling Components in Human Evolution.

6.12 Summary: Is TRPC2 the VNO Transduction Channel?


7 Transduction Mechanisms in Taste Cells (Kathryn Medler and Sue C. Kinnamon).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Ionic Stimuli.

7.3 Complex Stimuli.

7.4 Conclusions.

8 Invertebrate Phototransduction: Multimolecular Signaling Complexes and the Role of TRP and TRPL Channels (Armin Huber).


8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Structure of the Drosophila Compound Eye and Its Visual Pigments.

8.3 The Drosophila Phototransduction Cascade Is a Prototypical G-proteincoupled Signaling Pathway.

8.4 Essential Components of the Transduction Pathway Are Organized into a Multimolecular Signaling Complex.

8.5 TRP and TRPL, the Transduction Channels of Drosophila Photoreceptors.

8.6 Light-dependent Relocation of TRPL Alters the Properties of the Photoreceptive Membrane.

8.7 Concluding Remarks and Outlook.


9 The Transduction Channels of Rod and Cone Photoreceptors (U.B. Kaupp and D. Tr&auml;nkner).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Brief Overview.

9.3 Function of CNG Channels in Phototransduction and Adaptation.

9.4 Structure of Subunits.

9.5 Transmembrane Topology and Subunit Stoichiometry.

9.6 Interaction of CNG Channels With Other Proteins.

9.7 Modulation.

9.8 Phosphorylation.

9.9 Visual Dysfunction Caused by Mutant CNG Channel Genes.


10 Ion Channels and Thermotransduction (Michael J. Caterina).

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Physiological Studies Provide Evidence for the Existence of Thermally Gated Ion Channels.

10.3 Molecular Characterization of a Heat-gated Ion Channel, TRPV1.

10.4 TRPV2 Is an Ion Channel Activated by Extremely Hot Temperatures.

10.5 TRPV3 and TRPV4 Are Warmth-activated Channels.

10.6 TRPM8 and ANKTM1 Are Activated by Cool and Cold Temperatures, Respectively.

10.7 Non-TRP Channels Implicated in Mammalian Temperature Sensation.

10.8 Temperature-sensing Proteins in Non-mammalian Species.

10.9 Mechanisms of Temperature Transduction.

10.10 Conclusions.

11 Pain Transduction: Gating and Modulation of Ion Channels (Peter A. McNaughton).

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Ion Channels Gated by Noxious Stimuli.

11.3 Sensitization by Inflammatory Mediators.

11.4 Conclusions.

12 Transduction and Transmission in Electroreceptor Organs (Robert C. Peters and Jean-Pierre Denizot).


12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Types of Electroreceptor Organs.

12.3 How is Transduction at Electroreceptor Cells Studied?

12.4 Current Views on Transduction and Transmission in Electroreceptor Organs.

12.5 Mucus and Transduction.

12.6 Conclusions and Open Ends.