DescriptionThe challenge for producing “invisible” electronic circuitry and opto-electronic devices is that the transistor materials must be transparent to visible light yet have good carrier mobilities. This requires a special class of materials having “contra-indicated properties” because from the band structure point of view, the combination of transparency and conductivity is contradictory.
Structured to strike a balance between introductory and advanced topics, this monograph juxtaposes fundamental science and technology / application issues, and essential materials characteristics versus device architecture and practical applications. The first section is devoted to fundamental materials compositions and their properties, including transparent conducting oxides, transparent oxide semiconductors, p-type wide-band-gap semiconductors, and single-wall carbon nanotubes. The second section deals with transparent electronic devices including thin-film transistors, photovoltaic cells, integrated electronic circuits, displays, sensors, solar cells, and electro-optic devices.
Describing scientific fundamentals and recent breakthroughs such as the first “invisible” transistor, Transparent Electronics: From Synthesis to Applications brings together world renowned experts from both academia, national laboratories, and industry.
List of Contributors.
1 Combining Optical Transparency with Electrical Conductivity: Challenges and Prospects (Julia E. Medvedeva).
1.2 Electronic Properties of Conventional TCO Hosts.
1.3 Carrier Generation in Conventional TCO Hosts.
1.4 Magnetically Mediated TCO.
1.5 Multicomponent TCO Hosts.
1.6 Electronic Properties of Light Metal Oxides.
1.7 Carrier Delocalization in Complex Oxides.
1.8 An Outlook: Toward an Ideal TCO.
2 Transparent Oxide Semiconductors: Fundamentals and Recent Progress (Hideo Hosono).
2.2 Electronic Structure in Oxides: Carrier Transport Paths in Semiconductors.
2.3 Materials Design of p-Type TOSs.
2.4 Layered Oxychalcogenides: Improved p-Type Conduction and Room-Temperature Stable Excitons.
2.5 Nanoporous Crystal, C12A7: New Functions Created by Subnanometer Cages and Clathrated Anions.
2.6 TAOSs and their TFT Applications.
3 p-Type Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors for Transparent Electronics (Janet Tate and Douglas A. Keszler).
3.3 Challenges Associated with p-Type Wide-Gap Semiconductors .
3.5 Outlook and Prospects.
4 Lead Oxides: Synthesis and Applications (Dale L. Perry).
4.2 Overview of Synthetic Methods and Approaches.
4.3 Synthesis of Lead Oxides.
4.4 Applications of Lead Oxides.
5 Deposition and Performance Challenges of Transparent Conductive Oxides on Plastic Substrates (Clark I. Bright).
5.2 Challenges with Plastic Substrates.
5.3 TCO Performance Comparison – Glass Versus Plastic Substrates.
5.4 Conductivity Mechanisms in TCO.
5.5 Qualitative TCO Doping Model.
5.6 Industrial TCO Deposition Methods on Plastic Substrates.
5.7 Developing a TCO Deposition Process.
5.8 Controlling TCO E/O Properties.
5.9 TSO for Transparent Oxide Electronics.
5.10 p-Type TCO and TSO.
5.11 Key Points and Summary.
6 Oxide Semiconductors: From Materials to Devices (Elvira Fortunato, Pedro Barquinha, Gonçalo Gonçalves, Luís Pereira and Rodrigo Martins).
6.2 Historical Background: From Field Effect Transistors (FETs) to TFTs.
6.3 Transparent Oxide Semiconductors.
6.4 Emerging Devices Based on Cellulose Paper: Paper FETs.
6.5 Conclusions and Outlook.
7 Carbon Nanotube Transparent Electrodes (Teresa M. Barnes and Jeffrey L. Blackburn).
7.2 Chirality and Band Structure of SWCNTs.
7.3 Synthesis, Purification, and Dispersion of SWCNTs.
7.4 Deposition of SWCNT Networks.
7.5 Effects of Chemical Doping.
7.6 Optical Properties of SWCNTs and SWCNT Networks.
7.7 Electrical Properties of SWCNT Networks.
7.8 Sheet Resistance and Transport Measurements.
7.9 Morphology of SWCNT Networks.
7.10 Literature Results on Transparent SWCNT Networks.
8 Application of Transparent Amorphous Oxide Thin Film Transistors to Electronic Paper (Manabu Ito).
8.2 Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Display.
8.3 Flexible Electronic Paper.
8.4 Application of Transparent Electronics.
9 Solution-Processed Electronics Based on Transparent Conductive Oxides (Vivek Subramanian).
9.2 Solution-Processed Transparent Conductive Oxides.
10 Transparent Metal Oxide Nanowire Electronics (Rocıío Ponce Ortiz, Antonio Facchetti and Tobin J. Marks).
10.2 Nanowire Transistors.
10.3 Transparent Nanowire Circuits and Displays.
11 Application of Transparent Oxide Semiconductors for Flexible Electronics (Peter F. Carcia).
11.2 Zinc Oxide.
11.3 Indium Oxide.
11.4 SnO2 Thin Film Transistors.
11.5 Gate Dielectrics.
11.6 Transistors on Plastic Substrates.
12 Transparent OLED Displays (Thomas Riedl).
12.2 Transparent OLEDs.
12.3 Transparent Thin Film Transistors.
12.4 Transparent Active Matrix OLED Displays.
13 Oxide-Based Electrochromics (Claes G. Granqvist).
13.2 Electrochromic Devices.
13.3 Some Recent Research Results.
13.4 Summary and Concluding Remarks.
14 Transparent Solar Cells Based on Organic Polymers (Jinsong Huang, Gang Li, Juo-Hao Li, Li-Min Chen and Yang Yang).
14.2 Multiple Metal Layer Structure as Transparent Cathode.
14.3 Transparent Metal Oxide for Anode of High Performance Transparent Solar Cell.
14.4 Transparent Solar Cell Fabricated by Lamination.
14.5 Conclusion and Remarks.
15 Organic Electro-Optic Modulators with Substantially Enhanced Performance Based on Transparent Electrodes (Fei Yi, Seng-Tiong Ho and Tobin J. Marks).
15.2 TC-Based Low-Voltage, High-Speed Organic EO Modulators.
15.3 Full Design: A Detailed Example of High-Frequency Modulator Design.
15.4 Experimental Realization of a TC-Based Organic EO Modulator and Measurement Result.
16 Naphthalenetetracarboxylic Diimides as Transparent Organic Semiconductors (Kevin Cua See and Howard E. Katz).
16.2 Initial Demonstration of NTCDI Semiconductor FETs.
16.3 Further Structural Elaboration of NTCDI Molecular Semiconductors.
16.4 Use of NTCDI Semiconductors in Multifunctional Transistors.
17 Transparent Metal Oxide Semiconductors as Gas Sensors (Camilla Baratto, Elisabetta Comini, Guido Faglia, Matteo Ferroni, Andrea Ponzoni, Alberto Vomiero and Giorgio Sberveglieri).
17.2 Sensing with Nanostructures.
17.3 Synthesis of Nanostructures for Sensing.
17.4 Gas Sensing with Nanowires.
17.5 Chemoresistive Sensing Properties of In2O3 Nanowires.