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Transportation Planning Handbook, 4th Edition

ITE (Institute of Transportation Engineers), Michael D. Meyer

ISBN: 978-1-118-76239-4 July 2016 1200 Pages


A multi-disciplinary approach to transportation planning fundamentals

The Transportation Planning Handbook is a comprehensive, practice-oriented reference that presents the fundamental concepts of transportation planning alongside proven techniques. This new fourth edition is more strongly focused on serving the needs of all users, the role of safety in the planning process, and transportation planning in the context of societal concerns, including the development of more sustainable transportation solutions. The content structure has been redesigned with a new format that promotes a more functionally driven multimodal approach to planning, design, and implementation, including guidance toward the latest tools and technology. The material has been updated to reflect the latest changes to major transportation resources such as the HCM, MUTCD, HSM, and more, including the most current ADA accessibility regulations.

Transportation planning has historically followed the rational planning model of defining objectives, identifying problems, generating and evaluating alternatives, and developing plans. Planners are increasingly expected to adopt a more multi-disciplinary approach, especially in light of the rising importance of sustainability and environmental concerns. This book presents the fundamentals of transportation planning in a multidisciplinary context, giving readers a practical reference for day-to-day answers.

  • Serve the needs of all users
  • Incorporate safety into the planning process
  • Examine the latest transportation planning software packages
  • Get up to date on the latest standards, recommendations, and codes

Developed by The Institute of Transportation Engineers, this book is the culmination of over seventy years of transportation planning solutions, fully updated to reflect the needs of a changing society. For a comprehensive guide with practical answers, The Transportation Planning Handbook is an essential reference.

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xiii

About the Editor xvii

Chapter 1: Introduction to Transportation Planning 1

I. Introduction 1

II. Organization of This Handbook.2

III. The Transportation Planning Process 3

IV. Changing Context for Transportation Planning 12

V. Additional Sources of Information 14

VI. Summary.15

VII. References 16

Chapter 2: Travel Characteristics and Data 17

I. Introduction 17

II. Transportation System Characteristics 17

III. Urban Travel Characteristics 26

IV. Estimating Travel Characteristics and Volumes 35

V. Modal Studies61

VI. Statistical Considerations 67

VII. Summary.71

VIII. References 71

Chapter 3: Land Use and Urban Design 75

I. Introduction 75

II. What Drives Development and Resulting Urban Form? 76

III. Urban Form 88

IV. Urban Design 90

V. Land-Use Forecasting and Transportation Planning 95

VI. Scenario Analysis for Urban Form 103

VII. Highway Facility-Related Strategies 104

VIII. Summary 110

IX. References 111

Chapter 4: Environmental Considerations 117

I. Introduction 117

II. Environmental Considerations in Transportation Planning and Decision Making 117

III. General Principles Regarding Environmental Content and Level of Detail 130

IV. Land Use and Economic Development Impacts133

V. Social and Community Impacts 139

VI. Natural Resource Impacts 146

VII. Construction Impacts 158

VIII. Considering Mitigation Strategies during the Systems Planning Process 159

IX. Summary 160

X. References 160

Chapter 5: Transportation Finance and Funding 165

I. Introduction 165

II. Key Concepts and Terms 166

III. Sources of Transportation Funding 167

IV. Transportation Finance Strategies 175

V. Public/Private Partnerships 178

VI. Investment Programming and Revenue Estimation 182

VII. Environmental Justice Analysis 197

VIII. Future Challenges 199

IX. Summary 200

X. References 200

Chapter 6: Travel Demand and Network Modeling 205

I. Introduction 205

II. Modeling Travel Demand 205

III. Demand Models and Tools 214

IV. Summary 233

V. References 233

Chapter 7: Evaluation and Prioritization Methods 237

I. Introduction 237

II. Characteristics of the Evaluation Process 237

III. Case Studies 266

IV. Summary 275

V. References 277

Chapter 8: Asset Management 281

I. Introduction 281

II. What Is Transportation Asset Management? 282

III. Recent U.S. History of Transportation Asset Management 284

IV. Asset Management and Transportation Planning 291

V. Asset Management Challenges and Opportunities 311

VI. Summary 312

VII. References 312

Chapter 9: Road and Highway Planning 317

I. Introduction 317

II. Best Practice for Urban Roadway Systems 318

III. Context-Sensitive Solutions (CSS) 323

IV. Traffic Calming.324

V. Green Roads 328

VI. Complete Streets 330

VII. System Performance and Capacity Measures 333

VIII. Condition Measures and Management Systems 338

IX. State Highway Plans and City Thoroughfare Plans 342

X. Road Investment Programs and Performance Monitoring 348

XI. Summary 350

XII. References 350

Chapter 10: Transportation System Management and Operations 355

I. Introduction 355

II. Understanding Network and Facility Performance 357

III. Planning and Organizing for TSM&O 361

IV. Active Transportation and Demand Management 366

V. Examples of Management and Operations (M&O) Strategies 368

VI. Linking Transportation Planning and Planning for Operations 381

VII. Dissemination of Operations Data 400

VIII. The Connected Transportation System 400

IX. Summary 405

X. References 406

Chapter 11: Planning For Parking 411

I. Introduction 411

II. Parking Management Organizations 412

III. Zoning Requirements 413

IV. Strategies and Decisions for Parking Supply Options 419

V. Parking Management 428

VI. Parking Demand and Needs Analysis 435

VII. Common Land Uses 450

VIII. Shared Parking Methodology 465

IX. Parking Costs 468

X. Financing Parking Facilities 477

XI. Summary 480

XII. References 481

Chapter 12: Transit Planning 485

I. Introduction 485

II. Ownership and Governance 486

III. Contemporary Transit in North America 488

IV. Classification of Transit Modes and Their Components 491

V. Transit Cost Structures 517

VI. System Performance and Quality of Service 519

VII. Transit Planning Procedures 526

VIII. Planning for Passenger Stations 534

IX. Station Design 543

X. Lines and Networks 563

XI. Transit Route Planning 569

XII. Future Transit Issues 573

XIII. Summary 576

XIV. References 576

Chapter 13: Planning For Pedestrians and Bicyclists 581

I. Introduction 581

II. Goals and Benchmarks for Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning 582

III. Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety 583

IV. Evolution of Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning in the United States 585

V. Pedestrian and Bicyclist Planning 591

VI. Pedestrian and Bicyclist Planning/Design Issues 616

VII. Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation in Asia and Europe 632

VIII. Summary 634

IX. References 634

Chapter 14: Travel Demand Management 641

I. Introduction 641

II. TDM Goals, Objectives, and Performance Measures 644

III. TDM Strategies 646

IV. Potential Impacts of TDM Strategies 667

V. Data, Model Use, and Results 668

VI. Summary 672

VII. References 677

Chapter 15: Statewide Transportation Planning.681

I. Introduction 681

II. The Role of the Federal Government 682

III. Statewide Transportation Planning 685

IV. Statewide Modal Plans723

V. Summary—Continuing State Planning Challenges 725

VI. References 727

Chapter 16: Metropolitan Transportation Planning 729

I. Introduction 729

II. Legislative Context for U.S. Metropolitan Transportation Planning 729

III. Institutional Structure for Metropolitan Transportation Planning 735

IV. The Transportation Planning Process 739

V. Monitoring System and Program Performance 762

VI. Public Engagement 762

VII. Special Topics for Metropolitan Transportation Planning 768

VIII. Summary 774

IX. References 775

Chapter 17: Corridor Planning 783

I. Introduction 783

II. Nature of Corridor Transportation Planning 783

III. Corridor Selection 796

IV. Corridor Planning Approach 798

V. Corridor Management Plans 832

VI. Summary 836

VII. References 837

Chapter 18: Local and Activity Center Planning 841

I. Introduction 841

II. Local Transportation Planning 842

III. Activity Centers 863

IV. Implementation of Transportation Plans 886

V. Summary 887

VI. References 887

Chapter 19: Site Planning and Impact Analysis 891

I. Introduction 891

II. Administrative Requirements 893

III. Definition of Key Terms 896

IV. Site Plan Review Data 897

V. Transportation Access and Impact Analysis 899

VI. Analysis Procedures 915

VII. On-Site Transportation Elements 931

VIII. Implementation Actions/Strategies 936

IX. Report Organization 938

X. Summary 939

XI. References 941

Chapter 20: Rural Community and Tribal Nation Planning 945

I. Introduction 945

II. Rural Transportation Planning 946

III. Tribal Nations 959

IV. Summary 971

V. References 972

Chapter 21: Recreational Areas 975

I. Introduction 975

II. Characteristics of Recreational Travel975

III. Characteristics of Transportation Systems Serving Recreational Areas 977

IV. Transportation-Related Characteristics of Visitors to Recreational Areas 983

V. Transportation Planning for Recreational Areas 984

VI. Need for Information and Communication 1008

VII. Summary 1009

VIII. References.1010

Chapter 22: Integrating Freight Into The Transportation Planning Process 1013

I. Introduction 1013

II. Overview of Domestic Freight Flows 1013

III. Impact of Freight Flows on the Community, Freight Sector, and Transportation System 1017

IV. Freight Planning 1027

V. Freight Terminals 1059

VI. Summary 1063

VII. References 1065

Chapter 23: Planning It Safe—Safety Considerations In The Transportation Planning Process 1069

I. Introduction 1069

II. U.S. National Statistics 1070

III. Institutional and Policy Structure in the United States 1073

IV. Laying the Groundwork for Transportation Safety Planning 1079

V. Incorporating Safety into Transportation Planning 1080

VI. The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) 1104

VII. Relationship between Transportation Safety Planning and Strategic Highway Safety Planning 1105

VIII. Lessons from the International Community 1105

IX. Summary 1107

X. References 1108

Chapter 24: Public Participation and Engagement 1111

I. Introduction 1111

II. What Is the Public Participation Process? 1111

III. Know Your Public and Stakeholders 1116

IV. Public Participation Plan 1120

V. Public Participation Methods and Approaches 1123

VI. Evolving Role of Technology and Social Media 1130

VII. Public Participation and Project Development 1133

VIII. How to Measure Effectiveness 1134

IX. Words of Wisdom 1139

X. Summary 1141

XI. References 1142

Index 1157