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Typical and Atypical Development: From Conception to Adolescence



Typical and Atypical Development: From Conception to Adolescence

Martin Herbert

ISBN: 978-0-631-23467-8 December 2002 Wiley-Blackwell 448 Pages


Martin Herbert's latest book provides an interesting and informative account of the child's journey from the womb to the world outside, through childhood and into adolescence. It is based on the belief that it is vital for those training to work with children who have problems to understand what is typical or atypical in children's development. Herbert deliberately links developmental and clinical psychology approaches in order to help readers connect their theoretical understanding of the physical and psychological problems of childhood with the practicalities of assessment, rehabilitation and treatment.

'Although many have attempted to write a developmentally based book on child and adolescent behavior problems, few have achieved this lofty and elusive goal. Professor Herbert does so, however. He nicely bridges the gap or, some would say, chasm between developmental psychology, educational psychology, and clinical child and adolescent psychology.' Thomas H. Ollendick, PhD, University Distinguished Professor, Virginia Tech



From Childhood to Adolescence.


Concepts of Normality and Abnormality.

Age- and Stage-Related Tasks.

Crises of Development.

The Developmental History.

Part I: Typical Development:.

Where the Journey Begins.

The Intrauterine Stages and Perinatal Period.


1. The First Steps:.

Conception: The Beginning of Life.

Genetic Variation and Influence.

The Genotype.

The Human Genome Project.

Similarities and Differences in Individuals and Groups.

Progress from Conception to Birth.

Summary of Prenatal Developments.

Unanswered Questions.

2. The Perinatal Period :.

Anticipation of the Birth.

Fads and Fashions.

The Birth: Labour and Delivery.

The Mother and Postnatal Infant Care.

Maternal Bonding Theory.

Bonding to the Unborn Baby.

The Competent Infant.



Environmental Influences.

Representational Models of the Infant.

Part II: Typical Development:.



The First Relationship.

The Development of Sociability.

Crying And Smiling as Social Communication.

The Nature of Attachment.

Internal Representations and Selfhood.

Development of Self--other Awareness.

3. Early Childhood: The Pre-School Stage:.

Infant Growth and Development.

Physical Development.

The Nervous System.

The Brain Growth Spurt.

The Brain and Communication.

Biological Basis of Personality.

Sleeping Patterns.

Feeding Behaviour.

4. Perceptual, Motor and Language Development:.

Perceptual Development.

Vision and Fine Movement.

Motor Development.

The Proactive Brain.

Speech and Language Development.

Part III: Typical Development:.

Adaptation and Learning.


Adjustment and Adaptation.

Cultural Influences.

The Family Environment.

Childcare Practices.

Maternal Privation and Deprivation.

The Father's Role.



Surrogate Parenting.

Learning Theory.

Models of Learning.

The Adaptive Role of Fear.

Generalized Anxiety.

5. Early Childhood: The Pre-School Stage: Socialization and Cognitive Development.

Socialization and Self-Control.

Learning and Identification: Social and Moral Awareness.

Social Cognition.

Social Compliance.

The Development of Aggressive Behaviour.

Sex-Role (Gender) Identity.

Socializing Tasks.

Cognitive Development.


Theory of Mind.

6. Middle and Late Childhood:The School-Going Child:.

Developing a New Individuality.

Rules and Values.

Expectations of Parents.

Social Skills and Friendships.

Exchange Theory.

Siblings: The Longest Lasting Relationship.

7. Adolescence: Leaving Childhood Behind:.

The Changes of Puberty.

The End of Childhood.

Adolescent Sexuality.

Identity and Self-Image.

The Ending of Puberty.

Part IV: Atypical Development: The Hazardous Route:.


Issues Of Assessment, Definition and Measurement.

The Journey Begins Again: Prenatal Influences.

Genetic Influences: Inherited Abnormalities.

Chromosomal Abnormalities.

Genetic Accidents.

Patterns of Genetic Transmission.

Prenatal, Antenatal and Neonatal Screening.

Behavioural Genetics.

Neuropsychological Causation.

8. The Perilous First Journey: The Inhospitable Environment:.

Maternal Stress and Inherited Abnormalities.

Biological Adversity.


9. The Hazardous Perinatal Period: The Atypical Route:.

The Apgar Test.

Survival Repertoires.

Birth Complications.


Birth Trauma.


Parental Attachment to Atypical Infants.

10. Early Childhood: Atypical Physical, Sensory and Motor Development:.

Physical Disorders and Disabilities.

Congenital Physical Anomalies.

Abnormalities of Haemoglobin.

Impairments of Vision.

Impairments of Hearing.

Motor Impairments.

Impairments of Speech and Language.

Executive Functions of the Brain.

Neurological Damage.

Tics and Tourette's Syndrome.

Head Injuries.

11. The Pre-School Child: Atypical Behavior:.

The Authoritative Parent.


Assertive/Commanding Behaviour in Young Children.

Adverse Temperamental Attributes.

The ‘Difficult' Child.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

Developmental (Physical) Task Problems.

12. The School-Going Child: Atypical Behavior.

Educational Failure.

Insecurity Based Problems.

Reactive Attention Disorder.

Peer Group Problems.


Social Skills Problems.

Selective Mutism.

School Refusal.

Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity at School.

Severe (Profound) Learning Disabilities.

Specific Learning Disabilities.


Part V: Atypical Development: Mental Health and Mental Illness:.


Positive Mental Health.

Mental Illness.

13. Adolescence: Unsocial and Antisocial Behavior:.


Risky Sexual Activity.

Drug Use and Abuse.

Antisocial Behaviour: Conduct Disorders.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.



Personality Disorder.

Moral Development.

14. Psychological and Psychiatric Disorders:.

Mental Health Problems.

Anxiety States.

Phobic Anxiety.

Panic Attacks.


Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder.

Depression (Affective Disorder).


Part VI: Atypical Development: Children with Special Needs:.


Defining Need.

Developmental Disability.

The Child Who is Ill.

Child Protection.

15. Pervasive Developmental Difficulties: Early to Late Childhood and Adolescence.

Intellectual (Learning) Disability.

Classification of Intellectual Impairment.

Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

The Autistic Continuum.

Asperger's Disorder.

Anorexia Nervosa.

16. When a Child is Ill:.

Chronic Illness.

Implications of Acute and Chronic Illness.

Serious Illness (Hospitalization).

Development of The Concept of Death.

Ethical Issues.

17. Child Abuse and Maltreatment:.

Physical Abuse.

Emotional Abuse.

Child Sexual Abuse.


Appendix I: False and True Beliefs.

Appendix II: Measurement of Intelligence.

References and Bibliography.


'Although many have attempted to write a developmentally based book on child and adolescent behavior problems, few have achieved this lofty and elusive goal. Professor Herbert does so, however. He nicely bridges the gap or, some would say, chasm between developmental psychology, educational psychology, and clinical child and adolescent psychology. Throughout this volume, he weaves a rich tapestry of typical (i.e., normal) development and development gone awry. Developmental psychopathology comes alive. His approach is theoretically sophisticated, clinically sensitive, and both engaging and timely. It is, in short, a volume whose time has come.' Thomas H. Ollendick, PhD, University Distinguished Professor, Virginia Tech <!--end-->

'Professor Herbert summarizes very complicated material in a succinct, authoritative and accessible manner. He successfully integrates findings from biology, genetics, developmental and clinical psychology and places them within an appropriate cross-cultural context. This forms the basis for evidence based practice in the 21st century and is an invaluable aide-mémoire to all working with children.' William Yule, PhD, Professor of Applied Child Psychology, University of London Institute of Psychiatry

"Martin Herbert provides comprehensive and interesting coverage of a core area of psychology - along with definition and discussion of the less core, more clinical aspects of the subject ... This is an intriguing combination of student textbook and descriptive handbook that will interest undergraduate and postgraduate alike, both in psychology and the more clinical areas of study. I'm sure students will find it a useful resource" Dr Rowan Myron, University of Hull, The Psychologist, August 2003, Vol 16, No.8

"Martin Herbert succeeds in this volume, as he has in many earlier volumes, in presenting complex material and issues in an understandable and authoritative manner. This is no mean feat, and is achieved with an elegant and engaging style ... Throughout the book Herbert skilfully succeeds in addressing issues of clinical and educational psychology and interweaving these with developmental, social and cognitive psychology ... Students and their teachers from a range of programmes will find this book invaluable as a resource: nurse, teacher, psychologist, and other medical professionals will benefit from possessing the book as a source book which provides infomation on a wide range of developmental problems. At a time when there is an increasing interest in, and concern with, the development of children and young people and the ways in which the environment in its widest sense can influence development, this book transcends the traditional distinction between nature and nurture and provides a clinically sensitive and academically authoritative account of normal and atypical development. As stated by Thomas Ollendick on the back cover, 'it is a volume whose time has come'." Ingrid Lunt, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 45, No. 6, September 2004

  • This text provides an interesting and informative account of the child's journey from the womb to the world outside, through childhood and adolescent experiences to young adulthood.
  • The first half of the book, discussing normal patterns of growth and development, is cross-referenced to equivalent chapters in the second half, discussing atypical conditions. These connections serve to emphasise the continuities between, and similarities of, children with typical and atypical problems.
  • Among the disabilities covered are:
  • Pervasive developmental disorders
  • Genetic disorders
  • Physical impairments
  • Learning difficulties
  • Brain damage
  • Emotional and behavioural disorders
  • Personality disorders
  • Psychiatric problems
  • Helps readers connect their theoretical understanding of the problems of childhood with the practicalities of assessment and diagnosis required for effective rehabilitation and treatment.